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Store-operated Ca(2+) channels activated by the depletion of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are a major Ca(2+) entry pathway in nonexcitable cells and are essential for T cell activation and adaptive immunity. After store depletion, the ER Ca(2+) sensor STIM1 and the CRAC channel protein Orai1 redistribute to ER-plasma membrane (PM) junctions,(More)
The central event in the cellular immune response to invading microorganisms is the specific recognition of foreign peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules by the alphabeta T cell receptor (TCR). The x-ray structure of the complete extracellular fragment of a glycosylated alphabeta TCR was determined at 2.5 angstroms, and its(More)
Neurotrophins are secreted growth factors critical for the development and maintenance of the vertebrate nervous system. Neurotrophins activate two types of cell surface receptors, the Trk receptor tyrosine kinases and the shared p75 neurotrophin receptor. We have determined the 2.4 A crystal structure of the prototypic neurotrophin, nerve growth factor(More)
Neuropilin-1 (NP-1) was first identified as a semaphorin receptor involved in neuron guidance. Subsequent studies demonstrated that NP-1 also binds an isoform of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as well as several VEGF homologs, suggesting that NP-1 may also function in angiogenesis. Here we report in vitro binding experiments that shed light on(More)
Synapses are asymmetric cellular adhesions that are critical for nervous system development and function, but the mechanisms that induce their formation are not well understood. We have previously identified thrombospondin as an astrocyte-secreted protein that promotes central nervous system (CNS) synaptogenesis. Here, we identify the neuronal(More)
The elusive etiology of germline bias of the T cell receptor (TCR) for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has been clarified by recent 'proof-of-concept' structural results demonstrating the conservation of specific TCR-MHC interfacial contacts in complexes bearing common variable segments and MHC allotypes. We suggest that each TCR variable-region gene(More)
Axon regeneration failure in the adult mammalian CNS is attributed in part to the inhibitory nature of CNS myelin. Three myelin-associated, structurally distinct proteins, Nogo, myelin-associated glycoprotein, and oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein, have been implicated in this inhibition. Neuronal Nogo receptor (NgR) binds to each of the three inhibitors(More)
Wnts are lipid-modified morphogens that play critical roles in development principally through engagement of Frizzled receptors. The 3.25 angstrom structure of Xenopus Wnt8 (XWnt8) in complex with mouse Frizzled-8 (Fz8) cysteine-rich domain (CRD) reveals an unusual two-domain Wnt structure, not obviously related to known protein folds, resembling a "hand"(More)
alphabeta T cell receptors (TCRs) can crossreact with both self- and foreign- major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in an enigmatic phenomenon termed alloreactivity. Here we present the 2.35 A structure of the 2C TCR complexed with its foreign ligand H-2L(d)-QL9. Surprisingly, we find that this TCR utilizes a different strategy to engage the(More)
A major obstacle for successful axon regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS) arises from inhibitory molecules in CNS myelin, which signal through a common receptor complex on neurons consisting of the ligand-binding Nogo-66 receptor (NgR) and two transmembrane coreceptors, p75 and LINGO-1. However, p75 expression is only detectable in(More)