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OBJECTIVES To validate the clinical efficacy and practical feasibility of massively parallel maternal plasma DNA sequencing to screen for fetal trisomy 21 among high risk pregnancies clinically indicated for amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. DESIGN Diagnostic accuracy validated against full karyotyping, using prospectively collected or archived(More)
Chromosomal aneuploidy is the major reason why couples opt for prenatal diagnosis. Current methods for definitive diagnosis rely on invasive procedures, such as chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis, and are associated with a risk of fetal miscarriage. Fetal DNA has been found in maternal plasma but exists as a minor fraction among a high background(More)
Cell-free fetal DNA is present in the plasma of pregnant women. It consists of short DNA fragments among primarily maternally derived DNA fragments. We sequenced a maternal plasma DNA sample at up to 65-fold genomic coverage. We showed that the entire fetal and maternal genomes were represented in maternal plasma at a constant relative proportion. Plasma(More)
BACKGROUND The precise measurement of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma facilitates noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of fetal chromosomal aneuploidies and other applications. We tested the hypothesis that microfluidics digital PCR, in which individual fetal-DNA molecules are counted, could enhance the precision of measuring circulating fetal DNA. (More)
BACKGROUND The discovery of fetal DNA in maternal plasma has opened up an approach for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. Despite the rapid expansion in clinical applications, the molecular characteristics of plasma DNA in pregnant women remain unclear. METHODS We investigated the size distribution of plasma DNA in 34 nonpregnant women and 31 pregnant women,(More)
The discovery of circulating fetal nucleic acid in maternal plasma has opened up new possibilities for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. Thus far, a gender- and polymorphism-independent fetal-specific target that can be used for prenatal screening and monitoring in all pregnant women has not been reported. In addition, the origin of such circulating nucleic(More)
Trisomy 21 is the most common reason that women opt for prenatal diagnosis. Conventional prenatal diagnostic methods involve the sampling of fetal materials by invasive procedures such as amniocentesis. Screening by ultrasonography and biochemical markers have been used to risk-stratify pregnant women before definitive invasive diagnostic procedures.(More)
BACKGROUND Hypermethylation of the RASSF1A [Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family member 1A] gene is frequently observed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We evaluated the analysis of circulating hypermethylated RASSF1A for detecting HCC and assessing its prognosis. METHODS In module 1, we studied 63 pairs of HCC patients and age- and sex-matched(More)
BACKGROUND A genomewide genetic and mutational profile of a fetus was recently determined via deep sequencing of maternal plasma DNA. This technology could have important applications for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) of many monogenic diseases. Relative haplotype dosage (RHDO) analysis, a core step of this procedure, would allow one to elucidate(More)
OBJECTIVE This study aimed to provide an individualized assessment of fetal trisomy 21 and trisomy 18 status for twin pregnancies by maternal plasma DNA sequencing. METHOD Massively parallel sequencing was performed on the plasma/serum DNA libraries of eight twin pregnancies and 11 singleton pregnancies. The apparent fractional fetal DNA concentrations(More)