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Co-treatment of mice infected with different strains of Leishmania donovani with a non-ionic surfactant vesicle formulation of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO-NIV), and sodium stibogluconate (SSG), did not alter indicators of Th1 or Th2 responses but did result in a significant strain-independent up-regulation of IL6 and nitrite levels by stimulated splenocytes(More)
It is well established that a fully competent immune response is required for the successful drug treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. However, recent studies have cast some doubt as to which elements of the immune response synergize with chemotherapeutic treatment. The role of the Th2 response and IL-4 in particular during visceral leishmaniasis awaits(More)
Sequencing studies showed that the gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS) heavy chain genes from sodium stibogluconate (SSG)-resistant (SSG-R) and SSG-susceptible (SSG-S) Leishmania donovani strains were identical, indicating that SSG resistance was related to quantitative differences in gamma-GCS expression rather than gene interstrain(More)
Resistance to pentavalent antimonial (Sb(v)) agents such as sodium stibogluconate (SSG) is creating a major problem in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. In the present study the in vivo susceptibilities of Leishmania donovani strains, typed as SSG resistant (strain 200011) or SSG sensitive (strain 200016) on the basis of their responses to a single(More)
Amphiphilic chitosan-based polymers (Mw < 20 kDa) self-assemble in aqueous media at low micromolar concentrations to give previously unknown micellar clusters of 100-300 nm in size. Micellar clusters comprise smaller 10-30 nm aggregates, and the nanopolarity/drug incorporation efficiency of their hydrophobic domains can be tailored by varying the degree of(More)
Paromomycin (PMM) has recently been introduced for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in India. Although no clinical resistance has yet been reported, proactive vigilance should be warranted. The present in vitro study compared the outcome and stability of experimental PMM-resistance induction on promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. Cloned(More)
Macrophage function has been demonstrated to be subject to modulation by progesterone. However, as this steroid hormone can act through the glucocorticoid receptor as well as the progesterone receptor, the mechanism of action has not been precisely characterized. To determine the mode of action, we compared the ability of progesterone, norgestrel (a(More)
Neutrophils are key components of the inflammatory response and as such contribute to the killing of microorganisms. In addition, recent evidence suggests their involvement in the development of the immune response. The role of neutrophils during the first weeks post-infection with Leishmania donovani was investigated in this study. When L.(More)
The roles of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 in the regulation of immunity to Leishmania donovani infection are still poorly understood. Here we show that the increased parasite load observed in IL-4(-/-) and IL-4 receptor alpha(-/-) mice correlates with retarded granuloma maturation and antileishmanial activity and that the increased parasite load observed(More)
Protein antigens administered via the oral route are exposed to a hostile environment in the gastrointestinal tract, consisting of digestive enzymes and a range of pH (1-7.5). Using a delivery system can afford protection to entrapped components against degradation and permit delivery of antigen to the cells responsible for generating local and systemic(More)