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The energy requirement for biomass comminution and the resulting particle physical properties are important factors to study logistic components, select equipment, and assess the overall efficiency of feedstock supply–conversion chain. In this study, mechanical size reduction of Miscanthus (Miscanthus giganteus), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), willow(More)
Feedstock particle sizing can impact the economics of cellulosic ethanol commercialization through its effects on conversion yield and energy cost. Past studies demonstrated that particle size influences biomass enzyme digestibility to a limited extent. Physical size reduction was able to increase conversion rates to maximum of ≈ 50%, whereas chemical(More)
To ensure effective biomass feedstock provision for large-scale biofuel production, an integrated biomass supply chain optimization model was developed to minimize annual biomass-ethanol production costs by optimizing both strategic and tactical planning decisions simultaneously. The mixed integer linear programming model optimizes the activities range from(More)
Two types of robotic end-effectors capable of harvesting tomato fruits were manufactured based on the physical properties of tomato plant and tested. The first prototype end-effector consisted of two parallel plate fingers and a suction pad. The fingers pick a fruit off at the joint of its peduncle after the suction cup singulates it by vacuum from other(More)
Human monocytes release arachidonic acid upon stimulation with a variety of soluble or particulate agents. These include: phorbol esters (i.e., 12-O-tetradecanoate phorbol-13-acetate, TPA), calcium ionophores (ionomycin), serum-treated zymosan (STZ) concanavalin A (Con A), and, to a minor degree, lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Protein Kinase C activation or(More)
Applying robotics in plant production requires the integration of robot capabilities, plant culture, and the work environment. Commercial plant production requires certain cultural practices to be performed on the plants under certain environmental conditions. Some of the environmental conditions are mostly natural and some are modified or controlled. In(More)
The success of the bioenergy sector based on lignocellulosic feedstock will require a sustainable and resilient transition from the current agricultural system focused on food crops to one also producing energy crops. The dynamics of this transition are not well understood. It will be driven significantly by the collective participation, behavior, and(More)
Transplanting is a necessary operation in transplant production systems. Transplanting operation is labor-intensive and automation can reduce labor costs. Plugs are actively growing young transplants with two well-defined morphologic parts: the stem-leaf portion and the root-growth medium portion. They may be grown in regularly situated cells on traylike(More)
The low bulk density and low flowability of lignocellulosic biomass feedstock have been regarded widely as major barriers for a sustainable and efficient supply system. Densification of biomass is a viable option to increase the bulk (and inherent energy) density and flowability of feedstock, leading to improved efficiency of the supply system. The energy(More)
An industry leading 28nm high-performance mobile SoC technology featuring metal-gate/high-k process is presented. The technology is optimized to offer wide power-to-performance transistor dynamic range and highest wired gate density with superior low-R/ELK interconnects, critical for next generation mobile computing/SOC applications. Through process and(More)