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Summary form only given. FRAM memory technology offers a number of advantages over current memory technologies. For applications which require low power, fast write, or non-volatility with high write/read endurance, FRAM is quickly becoming the memory of choice. A number of commercial applications have been developed which benefit from these unique FRAM(More)
An embedded ferroelectric memory (FRAM) has been developed using a 1.5V, 130nm 5 metal layer Cu / FSG logic process. The only modification to the logic process was the addition of a ferroelectric process consisting of two additional masks (FECAP, VIA0) immediately before MET1. The ferroelectric was 70nm Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) deposited by metalorganic chemical(More)
Ferroelectric memories are the most promising alternative to traditional embedded nonvolatile memories, such as flash and EEPROMs, because of their fast read/write cycle time, non-volatile data retention, low voltage/low power operation and low number of additional masks for fabrication (+2). An embedded ferroelectric memory (FRAM) has been developed using(More)
With robots and users more commonly sharing space such as in the fields of medicine and home automation, the possibility of a physical collision has increased, even though many robots use actuators with high-ratio gear trains to minimize the effects of impact. We developed a 3-DOF manipulator having a smart flexible joint using an ER fluid and a(More)
Reliability data is presented for a 4Mb Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (F-RAM) embedded within a 130nm CMOS process. Write/read endurance in the device exhibits stable intrinsic bit properties through 2.7x1013 cycles. Data retention demonstrates 10 year, 85°C operating life. No fails were observed with full-chip endurance test to 108 cycles followed by(More)
BACKGROUND Micturitional disturbance is known to occur in neuro-Behçet's syndrome (NBS). However, its pathophysiology is uncertain and few data are available concerning urodynamic findings. We describe our findings on micturitional histories and urodynamic studies in patients with NBS. METHODS A history of urinary symptoms was obtained from nine patients(More)
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