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Systemically administered tumor-targeted Salmonella has been developed as an anticancer agent, although its use could be limited by the potential induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha)-mediated septic shock stimulated by lipid A. Genetic modifications of tumor-targeting Salmonella that alter lipid A and increase safety must, however, retain the(More)
A general role for chaperonin ring structures in mediating folding of newly translated proteins has been suggested. Here we have directly examined the role of the E. coli chaperonin GroEL in the bacterial cytoplasm by production of temperature-sensitive lethal mutations in this essential gene. After shift to nonpermissive temperature, the rate of general(More)
Live bacteria were first actively used in the treatment of cancer nearly 150 years ago, work that ultimately led to the study of immunomodulation. Today, with the discovery of bacterial strains that specifically target tumours, and aided by genomic sequencing and genetic engineering, there is new interest in the use of bacteria as tumour vectors.(More)
There has been little investigation of bacteria as gene delivery vectors. Here, we demonstrate that genetically engineered Salmonella have many of the desirable properties of a delivery vector, including targeting of multiple tumors from a distant inoculation site, selective replication within tumors, tumor retardation, and the ability to express effector(More)
Three mutations, denoted lex-1, -2 and -3, which increase the sensitivity of Escherichia coli K-12 to ultraviolet light (UV) and ionizing radiation, have been found by three-factor transduction crosses to be closely linked to uvrA on the E. coli K-12 linkage map. Strains bearing these mutations do not appear to be defective in genetic recombination although(More)