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Systemically administered tumor-targeted Salmonella has been developed as an anticancer agent, although its use could be limited by the potential induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha)-mediated septic shock stimulated by lipid A. Genetic modifications of tumor-targeting Salmonella that alter lipid A and increase safety must, however, retain the(More)
There has been little investigation of bacteria as gene delivery vectors. Here, we demonstrate that genetically engineered Salmonella have many of the desirable properties of a delivery vector, including targeting of multiple tumors from a distant inoculation site, selective replication within tumors, tumor retardation, and the ability to express effector(More)
Lipid A, a potent endotoxin which can cause septic shock, anchors lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. MsbB acylates (KDO)(2)-(lauroyl)-lipid IV-A with myristate during lipid A biosynthesis. Reports of knockouts of the msbB gene describe effects on virulence but describe no evidence of growth(More)
VNP20009 is a genetically modified strain of Salmonella typhimurium possessing an excellent safety profile, including genetically stable attenuated virulence (a deletion in the purI gene), reduction of septic shock potential (a deletion in the msbB gene), and antibiotic susceptibility. VNP20009 is genetically stable after multiple generations in vitro and(More)
A general role for chaperonin ring structures in mediating folding of newly translated proteins has been suggested. Here we have directly examined the role of the E. coli chaperonin GroEL in the bacterial cytoplasm by production of temperature-sensitive lethal mutations in this essential gene. After shift to nonpermissive temperature, the rate of general(More)
Live bacteria were first actively used in the treatment of cancer nearly 150 years ago, work that ultimately led to the study of immunomodulation. Today, with the discovery of bacterial strains that specifically target tumours, and aided by genomic sequencing and genetic engineering, there is new interest in the use of bacteria as tumour vectors.(More)