K. Araki

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The evolutionary origins and advantages of clonal reproduction relative to sexual reproduction have been discussed for several taxonomic groups. In particular, organisms with a sessile lifestyle are often exposed to spatial and temporal environmental fluctuations. Thus, clonal propagation may be advantageous in such fluctuating environments, for sessile(More)
Gymnogobius isaza is a freshwater goby endemic to Lake Biwa, Japan. They experienced a drastic demographic bottleneck in the 1950s and 1980s and slightly recovered thereafter, but the population size is still very small. To reveal dynamics of genetic diversity of G. isaza, we developed nine microsatellite markers based on the sequence data of a related goby(More)
| We apply evolutionary computations to the Hopeld's neural network model of associative memory. In the model, some of the appropriate congurations of the synaptic weights give the network a function of associative memory. One of our goals is to obtain the distribution of these optimal congurations as the global optima in the synaptic weight space as well(More)
Japanese is a peculiar language among the thousands of languages in the world. There exist only two of the same class! Japanese and Korean. Japanese is written both in Chinese characters (ideograph) and in Kana (Katakana and HAragana-phonetlo symbols) In mixture without any space. Moreover, 0hi-neee characters in Japanese have, in most cases, several(More)
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