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In the present article, the basic research using the mismatch negativity (MMN) and analogous results obtained by using the magnetoencephalography (MEG) and other brain-imaging technologies is reviewed. This response is elicited by any discriminable change in auditory stimulation but recent studies extended the notion of the MMN even to higher-order(More)
There is considerable debate about whether the early processing of sounds depends on whether they form part of speech. Proponents of such speech specificity postulate the existence of language-dependent memory traces, which are activated in the processing of speech but not when equally complex, acoustic non-speech stimuli are processed. Here we report the(More)
Behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) measures were used to elucidate the neural mechanisms of involuntary engagement of attention by novelty and change in the acoustic environment. The behavioral measures consisted of the reaction time (RT) and performance accuracy (hit rate) in a forced-choice visual RT task where subjects were to(More)
Infrequent ("deviant") sounds occurring in a sequence of repetitive ("standard") sounds elicit an event-related brain potential (ERP) response called the mismatch negativity (MMN) even in the absence of attention to these sounds. MMN appears to be caused by a neuronal mismatch between the deviant auditory input and a sensory-memory trace representing the(More)
This article reviews recent event-related brain potential (ERP) studies of involuntary attention and distractibility in response to novelty and change in the acoustic environment. These studies show that the mismatch negativity, N(1) and P(3a) ERP components elicited by deviant or novel sounds in an unattended sequence of repetitive stimuli index different(More)
It has been proposed that mismatch negativity (MMN) is generated by temporal and frontal lobe sources, the former being associated with change detection and the latter with involuntary switching of attention to sound change. If this switching of attention is triggered by the temporal cortex change-detection mechanism, one would expect that the frontal(More)
ronal transport at non-saturating substrate concentrations. We also characterized EMT with 3H-MPP+ as its substrate, which is superior to endogenous amines for in vitro studies of the extraneuronal transporter8. Transport of MPP+ was sensitive to various structurally unrelated inhibitors of the extraneuronal monoamine transporter (Fig. 2c). The isocyanine(More)
Studies of human auditory and somatosensory modalities have shown that there is an oscillatory response in the gamma-band (at about 40 Hz) frequency which is elicited by either steady state or transient stimulation. The auditory 40-Hz response is generated at least partially in the auditory cortex as a result of thalamocortical interaction and may serve(More)
Whole-head magnetoencephalographic (MEG) responses to repeating standard tones and to infrequent slightly higher deviant tones and complex novel sounds were recorded together with event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Deviant tones and novel sounds elicited the mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the ERP and its MEG counterpart (MMNm) both when the(More)
The effect of processing load on event-related brain potentials (ERPs) was investigated in an intermodal selective attention task in which subjects attended selectively to auditory or visual stimuli. Processing load was manipulated by requiring subjects to detect either difficult-to-detect (deviant) or easy-to-detect (DEVIANT) targets in separate blocks of(More)