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To improve the ‘personalized-medicine’ approach to the treatment of depression, we need to identify biomarkers that, assessed before starting treatment, predict future response to antidepressants (‘predictors’), as well as biomarkers that are targeted by antidepressants and change longitudinally during the treatment (‘targets’). In this study, we tested the(More)
Depression and fatigue are frequent side effects of interferon-α (IFN-α) treatment, and there is compelling evidence that the inflammatory response system (including interleukin-6, IL-6) and the serotonergic system is important in the pathophysiology of such symptoms. Functional polymorphisms in the promoter region of the IL-6 gene (rs1800795) and serotonin(More)
BACKGROUND A number of scales are used to estimate the severity of depression. However, differences between self-report and clinician rating, multi-dimensionality and different weighting of individual symptoms in summed scores may affect the validity of measurement. In this study we examined and integrated the psychometric properties of three commonly used(More)
BACKGROUND There have been conflicting reports on whether the length polymorphism in the promoter of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) moderates the antidepressant effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). We hypothesised that the pharmacogenetic effect of 5-HTTLPR is modulated by gender, age and other variants in the serotonin(More)
First-episode psychosis (FEP) patients show hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, but the mechanisms leading to this are still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of stress and antipsychotic treatment on diurnal cortisol levels, and on cortisol awakening response, in FEP. Recent stressful events, perceived(More)
The objective of the Genome-based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression study is to investigate the function of variations in genes encoding key proteins in serotonin, norepinephrine, neurotrophic and glucocorticoid signaling in determining the response to serotonin-reuptake-inhibiting and norepinephrine-reuptake-inhibiting antidepressants. A total of 116 single(More)
BACKGROUND Ethnic variations have previously been identified in the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and pathways into psychiatric services. These have not been examined in the context of early intervention services, which may alter these trajectories. AIMS To explore ethnic differences in the nature and duration of pathways into early intervention(More)
BACKGROUND Adverse drug reactions are important determinants of non-adherence to antidepressant treatment, but their assessment is complicated by overlap with depressive symptoms and lack of reliable self-report measures. AIMS To evaluate a simple self-report measure and describe adverse reactions to antidepressants in a large sample. METHOD The newly(More)
The serotonin transporter is a strong candidate for aetiological involvement in affective disorders and psychosis. We analysed a VNTR in intron 2 of the human serotonin transporter gene (hSERT) for allelic association with bipolar affective disorder, unipolar depression and schizophrenia. An increased frequency of allele 12 of the VNTR was observed in(More)
CYP1A2 activity has been demonstrated to be bimodally or trimodally distributed in several populations, consistent with a codominant or recessive functional genetic polymorphism. However, studies aimed at identifying polymorphisms in CYPIA2 have not yet adequately accounted for this distribution pattern. To search for functional polymorphisms, we performed(More)