K.A. Kaczmarek

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Sensory substitution systems provide their users with environmental information through a human sensory channel (eye, ear, or skin) different from that normally used or with the information processed in some useful way. The authors review the methods used to present visual, auditory, and modified tactile information to the skin and discuss present and(More)
A new method to measure the dynamic range of electrotactile (electrocutaneous) stimulation uses both steepest ascent (gradient) and one-variable-at-a-time methods to determine the waveform variables that maximize the subjective magnitude (intensity) of the electrotactile percept at the maximal current without discomfort for balanced-biphasic pulse bursts(More)
A general-purpose electrotactile (electrocutaneous) stimulation system has been developed as a research tool for studying psychophysiological performance associated with various stimulation waveforms. An experimenter-defined command file specifies the stimulation current and waveform of each of the 16 channels. The system provides a burst onset delay of(More)
The effect of stimulation waveform on pattern perception was investigated on a 49-point fingertip-scanned electrotactile (electrocutaneous) display. Waveform variables burst frequency (F), number of pulses per burst (NPB), and pulse repetition rate (PRR) were varied in a factorial design. Contrast reduction was used to limit performance of perceiving a(More)
Two studies were conducted to determine the effect of stimulation current on pattern perception on a 49-point fingertip-scanned electrotactile (electrocutaneous) display. Performance increased monotonically from near chance levels at the lowest subthreshold current levels tested to approximately 90% at the highest comfortable current levels. This suggests(More)
Electrotactile (electrocutaneous) stimulation produces controlled, localized touch sensations at the location of a small stimulation electrode by passing a small electric current through the skin. The electric field thus generated in subcutaneous tissue directly excites the afferent nerve fibers responsible for touch sensations. A number of factors(More)
Electrotactile (electrocutaneous) stimulation produces controlled, localized touch sensations at the location of a small stimulation electrode by passing a small electric current through the skin. The electric field thus generated in subcutaneous tissue directly excites the afferent nerve fibers responsible for touch sensations. The electrotactile sensation(More)
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