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Few environmental factors have a larger influence on animal energetics than temperature, a fact that makes thermoregulation a very important process for survival. In general, endothermic species, i.e., mammals and birds, maintain a constant body temperature (Tb) in fluctuating environmental temperatures using autonomic and behavioural mechanisms. Most of(More)
Hypothalamus is a site of integration of the hypoxic and thermal stimuli on breathing and there is evidence that serotonin (5-HT) receptors in the anteroventral preoptic region (AVPO) mediate hypoxic hypothermia. Once 5-HT is involved in the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR), we investigated the participation of the 5-HT receptors (5-HT1, 5-HT2 and 5-HT7)(More)
The locus coeruleus (LC) plays an important role in central chemoreception. In young rats (P9 or younger), 85% of LC neurons increase firing rate in response to hypercapnia vs. only about 45% of neurons from rats P10 or older. Carbenoxolone (CARB - gap junction blocker) does not affect the % of LC neurons responding in young rats but it decreases the %(More)
The locus coeruleus (LC) is a noradrenergic nucleus that plays an important role in the ventilatory response to hypercapnia. This nucleus is densely innervated by serotonergic fibers and contains high density of serotonin (5-HT) receptors, including 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2). We assessed the possible modulation of respiratory response to hypercapnia by 5-HT,(More)
AIM Central chemoreceptors are important to detect changes of CO2/H(+), and the Locus coeruleus (LC) is one of the many putative central chemoreceptor sites. Here, we studied the contribution of LC glutamatergic receptors on ventilatory, cardiovascular and thermal responses to hypercapnia. METHODS To this end, we determined pulmonary ventilation (V(E)),(More)
The Locus coeruleus (LC) has been suggested as a CO(2) chemoreceptor site in mammals. In the present study, we assessed the role of LC noradrenergic neurons in the cardiorespiratory and thermal responses to hypercapnia. To selectively destroy LC noradrenergic neurons, we administered 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) bilaterally into the LC of male Wistar rats.(More)
In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that lactate, which is a classic companion of hypoxic stress in mammals, is a modulator of hypoxia-induced hyperventilation. To this end, pulmonary ventilation (V(E)) of male Wistar rats was measured by whole body plethysmograph, and dichloroacetate (DCA, 100 mg/kg) was used to inhibit lactate production.(More)
The locus coeruleus (LC) has been suggested as a CO2 chemoreceptor site in mammals. This nucleus is a mesencephalic structure of the amphibian brain and is probably homologous to the LC in mammals. There are no data available for the role of LC in the central chemoreception of amphibians. Thus the present study was designed to investigate whether LC of(More)
AIM Although periaqueductal grey matter activation is known to elicit respiratory and cardiovascular responses, the role of this midbrain area in the compensatory responses to hypoxia is still unknown. To test the participation of the periaqueductal grey matter in cardiorespiratory and thermal responses to hypoxia in adult male Wistar rats, we performed a(More)
We assessed the role of NK-1 receptors (NK1R) expressing neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC) on cardiorespiratory responses to hypercapnia. To this end, we injected substance P-saporin conjugate (SP-SAP) to kill NK-1 immunoreactive (NK1R-ir) neurons or SAP alone as a control. Immunohistochemistry for NK1R, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-ir) and Glutamic Acid(More)