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Th1-type cellular immune responses play a critical role in protection against infection with Leishmania parasites, whereas activation of Th2-type cells results in progressive disease. Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major is often a self-healing disease; however, persistent nonhealing forms are also known. In the present study, we have(More)
Acquired resistance to both mycobacteria and Leishmania is primarily mediated by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), which triggers mechanisms leading to the death of the microorganism in macrophages. In this study, cell activation and IFN-gamma production was investigated in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from individuals previously sensitized(More)
gamma delta T cells have variously been implicated in the protection against, and the pathogenesis of, malaria, but few studies have examined the gamma delta T-cell response to malaria in African children, who suffer the large majority of malaria-associated morbidity and mortality. This is unfortunate, since available data suggest that simple extrapolation(More)
Objective: There is theoretical and experimental evidence which indicates that Desmin, a low molecular weight dermatan sulphate, could be an attractive alternative to heparin in the treatment of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). The present study compares both compounds in patients with established DVT. Methods: Seventeen consecutive patients admitted with DVT(More)
  • K Kemp
  • 2000
Leishmania specific Th1/Th2 cells have been identified in humans as well as in mice. There is a correlation between the clinical outcome of the infection and the cytokine response profile. Generally, the production of Th2 cytokines leads to severe infection, whereas the production of Th1 cytokines leads to subclinical or mild infections. In mice, an(More)
In Sudan, post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) caused by Leishmania donovani develops in half of the patients treated for visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). In most patients lesions heal spontaneously, but in others symptoms are severe and persist for years. This study examined the immunological response in lesions of PKDL patients by(More)
Licochalcone A (LicA), an oxygenated chalcone, has been shown to inhibit the growth of both parasites and bacteria. In this study, we investigated the effect of LicA and four synthetic analogues on the activity of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and cytokine production. Four out of five chalcones tested inhibited the proliferation of(More)
The promastigote surface antigen-2 (PSA-2) is a Leishmania parasite antigen, which can induce Th1-mediated protection against murine leishmaniasis when used as a vaccine. To evaluate PSA-2 as a human vaccine candidate the specific T-cell response to PSA-2 was characterised in individuals immune to cutaneous leishmaniasis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells(More)
Cells of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila produce compounds that act as autocrine (paracrine) survival and/or growth factors. 8-Bromo cyclic GMP, sodium nitroprusside, hemin, protoporphyrin IX, human recombinant and bovine insulin were tested for their ability to substitute for the cell-produced factors and stimulate cell survival and proliferation. The(More)
Available evidence suggests that Plasmodium falciparum malaria causes activation and reallocation of T cells, and that these in vivo primed cells re-emerge into the periphery following drug therapy. Here we have examined the cytokine production capacity and susceptibility to programmed cell death of peripheral T cells during and after the period of(More)