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Th1-type cellular immune responses play a critical role in protection against infection with Leishmania parasites, whereas activation of Th2-type cells results in progressive disease. Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major is often a self-healing disease; however, persistent nonhealing forms are also known. In the present study, we have(More)
  • K Kemp
  • 2000
Leishmania specific Th1/Th2 cells have been identified in humans as well as in mice. There is a correlation between the clinical outcome of the infection and the cytokine response profile. Generally, the production of Th2 cytokines leads to severe infection, whereas the production of Th1 cytokines leads to subclinical or mild infections. In mice, an(More)
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients who have recovered from visceral leishmaniasis often respond to Leishmania antigens in vitro by production of both IL-4, IFN-gamma and IL-10. In order to establish the cellular sources of these cytokines, we activated cells from individuals with a history of visceral leishmaniasis with Leishmania(More)
In the present communication we provide evidence for the existence of a Th1/Th2 dichotomy in the T-cell response to Leishmania antigens in human leishmaniasis. Our data suggest that the pattern of IL-4 and IFN-gamma response is polarised in these patients. Lymphocytes from individuals recovered from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) responded by IFN-gamma(More)
Available evidence suggests that Plasmodium falciparum malaria causes activation and reallocation of T cells, and that these in vivo primed cells re-emerge into the periphery following drug therapy. Here we have examined the cytokine production capacity and susceptibility to programmed cell death of peripheral T cells during and after the period of(More)
Stereology is a set of mathematical and statistical tools to estimate three-dimensional (3-D) characteristics of objects from regular two-dimensional (2-D) sections. In medicine and biology, it can be used to estimate features such as cell volume, cell membrane surface area, total length of blood vessels per volume tissue and total number of cells. The(More)
Cells of Tetrahymena may produce autocrine signal molecules with effects on survival and proliferation. Here we have tested the effects of human recombinant and bovine insulin, and the B22-B30 fragment of bovine insulin over a wide range of concentrations (10(-5)-10(-18) M) on cell survival and proliferation in a synthetic nutrient medium. The cells were(More)
In Sudan, post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) caused by Leishmania donovani develops in half of the patients treated for visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). In most patients lesions heal spontaneously, but in others symptoms are severe and persist for years. This study examined the immunological response in lesions of PKDL patients by(More)