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Th1-type cellular immune responses play a critical role in protection against infection with Leishmania parasites, whereas activation of Th2-type cells results in progressive disease. Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major is often a self-healing disease; however, persistent nonhealing forms are also known. In the present study, we have(More)
Available evidence suggests that Plasmodium falciparum malaria causes activation and reallocation of T cells, and that these in vivo primed cells re-emerge into the periphery following drug therapy. Here we have examined the cytokine production capacity and susceptibility to programmed cell death of peripheral T cells during and after the period of(More)
In the present communication we provide evidence for the existence of a Th1/Th2 dichotomy in the T-cell response to Leishmania antigens in human leishmaniasis. Our data suggest that the pattern of IL-4 and IFN-gamma response is polarised in these patients. Lymphocytes from individuals recovered from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) responded by IFN-gamma(More)
Cells of Tetrahymena may produce autocrine signal molecules with effects on survival and proliferation. Here we have tested the effects of human recombinant and bovine insulin, and the B22-B30 fragment of bovine insulin over a wide range of concentrations (10(-5)-10(-18) M) on cell survival and proliferation in a synthetic nutrient medium. The cells were(More)
Cells of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila produce compounds that act as autocrine (paracrine) survival and/or growth factors. 8-Bromo cyclic GMP, sodium nitroprusside, hemin, protoporphyrin IX, human recombinant and bovine insulin were tested for their ability to substitute for the cell-produced factors and stimulate cell survival and proliferation. The(More)
In Sudan, post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) caused by Leishmania donovani develops in half of the patients treated for visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). In most patients lesions heal spontaneously, but in others symptoms are severe and persist for years. This study examined the immunological response in lesions of PKDL patients by(More)
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients who have recovered from visceral leishmaniasis often respond to Leishmania antigens in vitro by production of both IL-4, IFN-gamma and IL-10. In order to establish the cellular sources of these cytokines, we activated cells from individuals with a history of visceral leishmaniasis with Leishmania(More)
Acquired resistance to both mycobacteria and Leishmania is primarily mediated by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), which triggers mechanisms leading to the death of the microorganism in macrophages. In this study, cell activation and IFN-gamma production was investigated in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from individuals previously sensitized(More)
Persistent immune activation has been suggested to affect the subset composition and activation status of peripheral blood cells. In this study we have compared peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from a group of Ghanaians living in an area with high prevalence of malaria, mycobacteria, EBV and helmintic infections to a group of European counterparts.(More)