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Most metacommunity studies have taken a direct mechanistic approach, aiming to model the effects of local and regional processes on local communities within a metacommunity. An alternative approach is to focus on emergent patterns at the metacommunity level through applying the elements of metacommunity structure (EMS; Oikos, 97, 2002, 237) analysis. The(More)
The latitudinal gradient in diversity is widely acknowledged, but the mechanisms contributing to this pattern are still poorly known. Given that the species have environmental optima, a central issue is how species' niche parameters, i.e. niche breadth and niche position, vary along the latitudinal gradient. In this study, we examined the determinants of(More)
Increased turbidity reduces visibility in the water column, which can negatively affect vision-oriented fish and their ability to detect prey. Young fish could consequently benefit from high turbidity levels that can provide a protective cover, reducing predation pressure. Perch (Perca fluviatilis) are commonly found in littoral zones of temperate lakes and(More)
Three-dimensional carbon nanotube scaffolds created using micromachined Si/SiO2 templates are used as nanoparticulate filters and support membranes for gas-phase heterogeneous catalysis. The filtering efficiency of better than 99% is shown for the scaffolds in filtering submicrometer particles from air. In the hydrogenation of propene to propane reaction(More)
Trends in the densities of six species of gall mites on European aspen (Populus tremula) and on two birch species (Betula pubescens and B. pendula) were compared in an air pollution gradient from the Harjavalta copper-nickel smelter, SW Finland. The densities of gall mites on both birch species decreased towards the smelter and were negatively correlated(More)
Growth of pikeperch Sander lucioperca in the eutrophic and clay-turbid Lake Sahajärvi, Southern Finland, was extremely slow in comparison with other lakes at similar latitudes. The most important food item in July was phantom midge larvae Chaoborus flavicans for all sizes of S. lucioperca (239-423 mm total length L(T)), while later, in August and September,(More)
Three sediment samples LP (pool where logs are stored), LF (brook through landfill area), KN (Kaskesniemi) which is in Lake Pyhäselkä downstream from the mill, were taken from an old sawmill area and one from the unpolluted Lake Höytiäinen. The arsenite concentration was measured by GFAAS and two arsenite biosensing bacterial strains Pseudomonas fluorescens(More)
Optical ridge type waveguides based on UV-curable polymer were fabricated by imprinting method. Positive tone resist patterned on a silicon wafer was used as a mould. The characterization of waveguides was carried out by coupling TE-polarized light from a tapered fiber into a waveguide with 30 mm length and mapping the intensity distribution with another(More)
Climate change scenarios concerning the Baltic Sea predict increase in surface water temperatures. Pikeperch (Sander lucioperca (L.)) inhabits the coastal areas of the northern Baltic Sea and is an important fish species for the Finnish fisheries. The year-class strength of pikeperch varies strongly between years and significantly depends on water(More)