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Although microglial activation is associated with all CNS disorders, many of which are sexually dimorphic or age-dependent, little is known about whether microglial basal gene expression is altered with age in the healthy CNS or whether it is sex dependent. Analysis of microglia from the brains of 3-day (P3)- to 12-month-old male and female C57Bl/6 mice(More)
Intermittent hypoxia causes a form of serotonin-dependent synaptic plasticity in the spinal cord known as phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF). Here we show that increased synthesis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the spinal cord is necessary and sufficient for pLTF in adult rats. We found that intermittent hypoxia elicited(More)
CNS inflammation mediated by microglial activation can result in neuronal and glial cell death in a variety of neurodegenerative and demyelinating diseases. Minocycline, a second-generation tetracycline, has profound anti-inflammatory properties in the CNS mediated, in part, by inhibition of microglia. MAPK and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation(More)
Following many types of brain injury, microglial cell hyperactivation, and the subsequent release of neurotoxic mediators into the CNS contributes to inflammation and neuronal death. Among the proteins important for modulating the inflammatory function of microglia are the P2 purinergic receptors for which extracellular adenine nucleotides, such as ATP, are(More)
During postnatal development, microglia, CNS resident innate immune cells, are essential for synaptic pruning, neuronal apoptosis and remodeling. During this period microglia undergo morphological and phenotypic transformations; however, little is known about how microglial number and density is regulated during postnatal CNS development. We found that(More)
Activation of microglia, CNS resident immune cells, is a pathological hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disorder affecting motor neurons. Despite evidence that microglia contribute to disease progression, the exact role of these cells in ALS pathology remains unknown. We immunomagnetically isolated microglia from different(More)
Microglia play an important role in inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). These cells have also been identified in brain neoplasms; however, as of yet their function largely remains unclear. More recent studies designed to characterize further tumor-associated microglia suggest that the immune effector function of these cells may be(More)
ATP is abundant in the extracellular fluid following brain injury, and it exerts potent modulatory effects on microglia, whose hyperactivation is thought to exacerbate neuronal damage. We show here that ATP decreases LPS-stimulated iNOS and COX-2 expression and reduces NO release in BV-2 microglia by a mechanism involving p38 MAP kinase. Further, we(More)
Microglia are implicated in multiple neurodegenerative disorders, many of which display sexual dimorphisms and have symptom onsets at different ages. P2 purinergic receptors are critical for regulating various microglial functions, but little is known about how their expression varies with age or sex. Therefore, comprehensive information about purinergic(More)
Microglial activation plays a key role in the neuroinflammation associated with virtually all CNS disorders, although their role in normal CNS physiology is becoming increasingly appreciated. Neuroinflammation is often assessed by analyzing pro-inflammatory mediators in CNS tissue homogenates, under the assumption that microglia are the main source of these(More)