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Although microglial activation is associated with all CNS disorders, many of which are sexually dimorphic or age-dependent, little is known about whether microglial basal gene expression is altered with age in the healthy CNS or whether it is sex dependent. Analysis of microglia from the brains of 3-day (P3)- to 12-month-old male and female C57Bl/6 mice(More)
Estrogen treatment of ovariectomized rats rapidly increases immunoreactivity for the phosphorylated form of the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)in neurons of the preoptic area and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. These effects were detected within 15 minutes after estrogen exposure. Since the antisera used for these studies detect CREB(More)
Intermittent hypoxia causes a form of serotonin-dependent synaptic plasticity in the spinal cord known as phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF). Here we show that increased synthesis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the spinal cord is necessary and sufficient for pLTF in adult rats. We found that intermittent hypoxia elicited(More)
Following many types of brain injury, microglial cell hyperactivation, and the subsequent release of neurotoxic mediators into the CNS contributes to inflammation and neuronal death. Among the proteins important for modulating the inflammatory function of microglia are the P2 purinergic receptors for which extracellular adenine nucleotides, such as ATP, are(More)
Vasopressin V1a receptors (V1aRs) are expressed in the septum of the rat brain where they are thought to mediate several of the physiologic and behavioral effects of this neuropeptide. We have investigated the effects of adrenal steroids on forebrain V1aRs. Rats were bilaterally adrenalectomized (ADX) and hormone replaced with either corticosterone (CORT),(More)
Activation of microglia, CNS resident immune cells, is a pathological hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disorder affecting motor neurons. Despite evidence that microglia contribute to disease progression, the exact role of these cells in ALS pathology remains unknown. We immunomagnetically isolated microglia from different(More)
The nucleotide receptor P2X7 has been shown to modulate LPS-induced macrophage production of numerous inflammatory mediators. Although the C-terminal portion of P2X7 is thought to be essential for multiple receptor functions, little is known regarding the structural motifs that lie within this region. We show here that the P2X7 C-terminal domain contains(More)
The type I Ca(2+)-sensitive adenylyl cyclase has been implicated in several forms of synaptic plasticity in vertebrates. Mutant mice in which this enzyme was inactivated by targeted mutagenesis show deficient spatial memory and altered long term potentiation (Wu, Z. L., Thomas, S. A., Villacres, E. C., Xia, Z., Simmons, M. L., Chavkin, C., Palmiter, R. D.,(More)
Microglia play an important role in inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). These cells have also been identified in brain neoplasms; however, as of yet their function largely remains unclear. More recent studies designed to characterize further tumor-associated microglia suggest that the immune effector function of these cells may be(More)
CNS inflammation mediated by microglial activation can result in neuronal and glial cell death in a variety of neurodegenerative and demyelinating diseases. Minocycline, a second-generation tetracycline, has profound anti-inflammatory properties in the CNS mediated, in part, by inhibition of microglia. MAPK and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation(More)