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N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) overactivation is linked to neurodegeneration. The current prevailing theory suggests that synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDAR (syn- and ex-NMDAR) impose counteracting effects on cell fate, and neuronal cell death is mainly mediated by the activation of ex-NMDAR. However, several lines of evidence implicate the limitation(More)
Dimemorfan, an antitussive and a sigma-1 (sigma(1)) receptor agonist, has been reported to display neuroprotective properties. We set up an animal model of ischemic stroke injury by inducing cerebral ischemia (for 1 h) followed by reperfusion (for 24 h) (CI/R) in rats to examine the protective effects and action mechanisms of dimemorfan against(More)
The present study evaluated in mice the central inhibitory effects of a water extract of shichangpu (Acori graminei rhizoma (AGR), the dry rhizome of Acorus gramineus Soland. (Araceae)). AGR (0.5-5.0 g/kg) dose-dependently decreased the locomotor activity and increased the pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, but had no significant effect on the treadmill(More)
IgM lambda monoclonal antibodies in two patients with motor neuron disease showed the same unique antigenic specificity. They bound to gangliosides GM1 and GD1b and to lacto-N-tetraose-BSA. By immunofluorescence microscopy they bound to central and peripheral nerve tissue and to motor end-plates at the neuromuscular junction. Sera from control subjects did(More)
Dextromethorphan ((+)-3-methoxy-N-methylmorphinan, DM) has been shown to have both anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects. The mechanisms of these CNS effects of DM have been suggested to be associated with the low-affinity, noncompetitive, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonism of DM and/or the high-affinity DM/sigma receptors. DM is largely(More)
Baicalein may act on the benzodiazepine binding sites to exert an anxiolytic-like effect in mice. Since many benzodiazepine drugs have amnesic side-effect and baicalein can protect cultured cortical neurons from beta-amyloid peptide-(25-35)-induced toxicity, this study examined the amnesic effect of baicalein and its effects on beta-amyloid peptide-(25-35)(More)
(1) Dimemorfan, an antitussive for more than 25 years, has previously been reported to be a relative high-affinity ligand at sigma-1 (sigma(1)) receptor with the K(i) value of 151 nM. (2) To test whether dimemorfan has anti-amnesic effects similar to a sigma(1) receptor agonist, this study examined its effects on scopolamine- and beta-amyloid(More)
Diabetes is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, which in turn facilitates the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs activate signaling proteins such as Src, Akt and ERK1/2. However, the mechanisms by which AGEs activate these kinases remain unclear. We examined the effect of AGEs on Akt activation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Addition of(More)
Contusive spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating event which leads to a loss of neurological function below the level of injury. A secondary degenerative process is initiated following acute SCI. This secondary cascade provides opportunities for the delivery of therapeutic interventions. Silymarin, a widely used "liver herb", is frequently used for the(More)
A previous receptor binding assay indicated that baicalein, one of the active principles of the Chinese herbal drug, Huangqin (Scutellariae Radix), interacts with the benzodiazepine binding site of GABA(A) receptors in mouse cortex membrane preparations with a K(i) value of 13.1 microM. Therefore, the present study examined whether baicalein and its(More)