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BACKGROUND The relationship between active cigarette smoking and breast cancer risk remains controversial because of unresolved issues of confounding and dose response. METHODS To investigate these issues further, we analyzed data from 73 388 women in the American Cancer Society's Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II) Nutrition Cohort. Analyses were based(More)
Recently, genetic association findings for nicotine dependence, smoking behavior, and smoking-related diseases converged to implicate the chromosome 15q25.1 region, which includes the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 cholinergic nicotinic receptor subunit genes. In particular, association with the nonsynonymous CHRNA5 SNP rs16969968 and correlates has been replicated(More)
Heavy smoking is a strong predictor of nicotine dependence, which is a major impediment to smoking cessation. Although both heavy smoking and nicotine dependence are highly heritable, previous attempts to identify genes influencing these phenotypes have been largely unsuccessful until very recently. We studied 1,452 heavy smokers (defined as smoking at(More)
BACKGROUND Epidemiologic studies of the association of folate intake with breast cancer risk have been inconclusive, and few have investigated how related nutrients modify this association. OBJECTIVE We investigated the association of dietary (food folate plus folic acid from fortification) and total folate (food folate, folic acid from fortification, and(More)
One-carbon metabolism mediates the interconversion of folates for the synthesis of precursors used in DNA synthesis, repair, and methylation. Inadequate folate nutrition or compromised metabolism can disrupt these processes and facilitate carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated associations of 39 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 9(More)
Serum inhibin concentrations, determined by radioimmunoassay, were measured in women undergoing pituitary suppression with buserelin and subsequently ovarian stimulation with human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG). Three types of treatment cycle were investigated, namely (1) cycles showing a normal ovarian response and resulting in a pregnancy; (2) cycles(More)
Weight cycling has been associated with an increased risk of death in some studies, but few studies differentiated weight cycling initiated by intentional weight loss from that initiated by illness. The association of weight cycling with death was examined among 55,983 men and 66,655 women in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort from 1992 to(More)
Low circulating levels of adiponectin and high levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), C-reactive protein (CRP), and C-peptide have been shown to be related to postmenopausal breast cancer risk, and to partially mediate the obesity-postmenopausal breast cancer association; however, data from prospective studies, especially those limited to non-users(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Folate intake has been inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in several prospective epidemiologic studies. However, no study fully assessed the influence of the high levels of folate that are frequently consumed in the United States as a result of mandatory folate fortification, which was fully implemented in 1998, and the(More)
CONTEXT Recent studies have shown an association between cigarettes per day (CPD) and a nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism in CHRNA5, rs16969968. OBJECTIVE To determine whether the association between rs16969968 and smoking is modified by age at onset of regular smoking. DATA SOURCES Primary data. STUDY SELECTION Available genetic studies(More)