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Exocytosis-the release of the contents of a vesicle--proceeds by two mechanisms. Full fusion occurs when the vesicle and plasma membranes merge. Alternatively, in what is termed kiss-and-run, vesicles can release transmitter during transient contacts with the plasma membrane. Little is known at the molecular level about how the choice between these two(More)
Inflammation or nerve injury-induced upregulation and release of chemokine CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) within the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is believed to enhance the activity of DRG nociceptive neurons and cause hyperalgesia. Transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) and tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant Nav1.8 sodium channels play an(More)
Several lines of evidence suggest that CCL2 could initiate the hyperalgesia of neuropathic pain by causing central sensitization of spinal dorsal horn neurons and facilitating nociceptive transmission in the spinal dorsal horn. The cellular and molecular mechanisms by which CCL2 enhances spinal pain transmission and causes hyperalgesia remain unknown. The(More)
Background: Cysteine string protein-a (CSPa) is a chaperone to ensure protein folding. Loss of CSPa function associates with many neurological diseases. However, its function in modulating regulated exocytosis remains elusive. Although cspaknockouts exhibit impaired synaptic transmission, overexpression of CSPa in neuroendocrine cells inhibits secretion.(More)
BACKGROUND In neonatal binocular animals, the developing retina displays patterned spontaneous activity termed retinal waves, which are initiated by a single class of interneurons (starburst amacrine cells, SACs) that release neurotransmitters. Although SACs are shown to regulate wave dynamics, little is known regarding how altering the proteins involved in(More)
BACKGROUND Developing retinas display retinal waves, the patterned spontaneous activity essential for circuit refinement. During the first postnatal week in rodents, retinal waves are mediated by synaptic transmission between starburst amacrine cells (SACs) and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The neuromodulator adenosine is essential for the generation of(More)
The activation of GABAA receptors (the type A receptors for γ-aminobutyric acid) produces two distinct forms of responses, phasic (i.e., transient) and tonic (i.e., persistent), that are mediated by synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA receptors, respectively. During development, the intracellular chloride levels are high so activation of these receptors causes(More)
In obesity, high levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) stimulate lipolysis in adipocytes, leading to hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), the insulin-sensitizing drugs, antagonize TNFα-induced lipolysis in adipocytes, thereby increasing insulin sensitivity in diabetes patients. The cellular target of TZDs is peroxisome(More)
BACKGROUND Cysteine string protein-α (CSPα) is a chaperone to ensure protein folding. Loss of CSPα function associates with many neurological diseases. However, its function in modulating regulated exocytosis remains elusive. Although cspα-knockouts exhibit impaired synaptic transmission, overexpression of CSPα in neuroendocrine cells inhibits secretion.(More)
The adipocyte is unique in its capacity to store lipids. In addition to triglycerides, the adipocyte stores a significant amount of cholesterol. Moreover, obese adipocytes are characterized by a redistribution of cholesterol with depleted cholesterol in the plasma membrane, suggesting that cholesterol perturbation may play a role in adipocyte dysfunction.(More)
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