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It is almost a decade since the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus (A/H5N1) of clade 2.2.1 was introduced to Egypt in 2005, most likely, via wild birds; marking the longest endemic status of influenza viruses in poultry outside Asia. The endemic A/H5N1 in Egypt still compromises the poultry industry, poses serious hazards to public health and(More)
Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes an economically important chicken disease, which results in delayed growth, reduced egg production, and also frequently in death of the animals. After acute infection of the upper respiratory tract, the virus can establish latency in the central nervous system, and subsequent(More)
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a pathogen that is important in the poultry industry worldwide. Specifically, the virulent (velogenic) NDV is a particular threat because it has now occurred frequently worldwide. The outbreaks caused by highly virulent NDV in waterfowl and especially in goose flocks, have led to greater concern in recent years as aquatic(More)
Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-expressing avian influenza virus (AIV) hemagglutinin (HA) of subtype H5 was constructed by reverse genetics. A cloned full-length copy of the genome of the lentogenic NDV strain Clone 30 was used for insertion of the ORF encoding the HA of the highly pathogenic AIV isolate A/chicken/Italy/8/98 (H5N2) in the intergenic region(More)
Reducing the cost of vaccine production is a key priority for veterinary research, and the possibility of heterologously expressing antigen in plants provides a particularly attractive means of achieving this. Here, we report the expression of the avian influenza virus haemagglutinin (AIV HA) in tobacco, both as a monomer and as a trimer in its native and(More)
Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) differ from all other strains by a polybasic cleavage site in their hemagglutinin. All these HPAIV share the H5 or H7 subtype. In order to investigate whether the acquisition of a polybasic cleavage site by an avirulent avian influenza virus strain with a hemagglutinin other than H5 or H7 is sufficient for(More)
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) possesses two envelope spike glycoproteins: the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein and the fusion (F) protein. The HN protein, which is responsible for virus attachment to sialic acid-containing receptors, varies in length due to differences in the sizes of the ORFs. An HN protein precursor of 616 aa has been found in(More)
H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of clade 2.2 spread from Southeast Asia to Europe. Intriguingly, in contrast to all common avian strains specifying glutamic acid at position 627 of the PB2 protein (PB2-627E), they carry a lysine at this position (PB2-627K), which is normally found only in human strains. To analyze the impact of this(More)
High-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) evolve from low-pathogenic precursors specifying the HA serotypes H5 or H7 by acquisition of a polybasic HA cleavage site. As the reason for this serotype restriction has remained unclear, we aimed to distinguish between compatibility of a polybasic cleavage site with H5/H7 HA only and unique predisposition(More)
Egress of four important alphaherpesviruses, equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1), herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), and pseudorabies virus (PrV), was investigated by electron microscopy of infected cell lines of different origins. In all virus-cell systems analyzed, similar observations were made concerning the(More)