Learn More
Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-expressing avian influenza virus (AIV) hemagglutinin (HA) of subtype H5 was constructed by reverse genetics. A cloned full-length copy of the genome of the lentogenic NDV strain Clone 30 was used for insertion of the ORF encoding the HA of the highly pathogenic AIV isolate A/chicken/Italy/8/98 (H5N2) in the intergenic region(More)
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a pathogen that is important in the poultry industry worldwide. Specifically, the virulent (velogenic) NDV is aparticular threat because it has now occurred frequently worldwide. The outbreaks caused by highly virulent NDV in waterfowl and especially in goose flocks, have led to greater concern in recent years as aquatic(More)
It is almost a decade since the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus (A/H5N1) of clade 2.2.1 was introduced to Egypt in 2005, most likely, via wild birds; marking the longest endemic status of influenza viruses in poultry outside Asia. The endemic A/H5N1 in Egypt still compromises the poultry industry, poses serious hazards to public health and(More)
Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes an economically important chicken disease, which results in delayed growth, reduced egg production, and also frequently in death of the animals. After acute infection of the upper respiratory tract, the virus can establish latency in the central nervous system, and subsequent(More)
Avian influenza viruses (AIV) of H5 and H7 subtypes exhibit two different pathotypes in poultry: infection with low pathogenic (LP) strains results in minimal, if any, health disturbances, whereas highly pathogenic (HP) strains cause severe morbidity and mortality. LPAIV of H5 and H7 subtypes can spontaneously mutate into HPAIV. Ten outbreaks caused by(More)
The H7 subtype HA gene has been found in combination with all nine NA subtype genes. Most exhibit low pathogenicity and only rarely high pathogenicity in poultry (and humans). During the past few years infections of poultry and humans with H7 subtypes have increased markedly. This review summarizes the emergence of avian influenza virus H7 subtypes in birds(More)
Reducing the cost of vaccine production is a key priority for veterinary research, and the possibility of heterologously expressing antigen in plants provides a particularly attractive means of achieving this. Here, we report the expression of the avian influenza virus haemagglutinin (AIV HA) in tobacco, both as a monomer and as a trimer in its native and(More)
Glycoprotein B (gB) of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), a major component of the viral envelope, is essential for membrane fusion during entry and cell-to-cell spread. It is cleaved in the trans-Golgi network by the proprotein convertase furin. Integration of the open reading frame (ORF) encoding a mutated gB with a second furin cleavage site and mature(More)
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) possesses two envelope spike glycoproteins: the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein and the fusion (F) protein. The HN protein, which is responsible for virus attachment to sialic acid-containing receptors, varies in length due to differences in the sizes of the ORFs. An HN protein precursor of 616 aa has been found in(More)
Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) differ from all other strains by a polybasic cleavage site in their hemagglutinin. All these HPAIV share the H5 or H7 subtype. In order to investigate whether the acquisition of a polybasic cleavage site by an avirulent avian influenza virus strain with a hemagglutinin other than H5 or H7 is sufficient for(More)