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The difficulties specialized phytophagous insects face in finding habitats with an appropriate host should constrain their dispersal. Within the concept of metacommunities, this leads to the prediction that host-plant specialists should sort into local assemblages according to the local environmental conditions, i.e. habitat conditions, whereas assemblages(More)
Changes in traditional agricultural systems in Europe in recent decades have led to widespread abandonment and colonization of various habitats by shrubs and trees. We combined several vegetation databases to test whether patterns of changes in plant diversity after land abandonment in different habitats followed similar pathways. The impacts of land(More)
The Ring Ouzel (Turdus torquatus) has an arctic–alpine distribution, with small populations also occurring at the higher altitudes of the low mountain ranges north of the Alps. The populations of the Alps and mountain ranges are classified as the subspecies T. torquatus alpestris, and those of the northern populations as T. torquatus torquatus. Since birds(More)
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