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The primate amygdala is implicated in the control of behavioral responses to foods and in stimulus-reinforcement learning, but only its taste representation of oral stimuli has been investigated previously. Of 1416 macaque amygdala neurons recorded, 44 (3.1%) responded to oral stimuli. Of the 44 orally responsive neurons, 17 (39%) represent the viscosity of(More)
The responses of 3687 neurons in the macaque primary taste cortex in the insula/frontal operculum, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and amygdala to oral sensory stimuli reveals principles of representation in these areas. Information about the taste, texture of what is in the mouth (viscosity, fat texture and grittiness, which reflect somatosensory inputs),(More)
The primate orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is a site of convergence from primary taste, olfactory, and somatosensory cortical areas. We describe the responses of a population of single neurons in the OFC that respond to orally applied fat (e.g., safflower oil) and to substances with a similar texture but different chemical composition, such as mineral oil(More)
Most sensory stimuli are actively sampled, yet the role of sampling behavior in shaping sensory codes is poorly understood. Mammals sample odors by sniffing, a complex behavior that controls odorant access to receptor neurons. Whether sniffing shapes the neural code for odors remains unclear. We addressed this question by imaging receptor input to the(More)
It is shown that the primate primary taste cortex represents not only taste but also information about many nontaste properties of oral stimuli. Of 1,122 macaque anterior insular/frontal opercular neurons recorded, 62 (5.5%) responded to oral stimuli. Of the orally responsive neurons, some (53%) represented the viscosity, tested using(More)
The primate orbitofrontal cortex is a site of convergence of information from primary taste, olfactory and somatosensory cortical areas. We describe the discovery of a population of single neurons in the macaque orbitofrontal cortex that responds to the temperature of a liquid in the mouth. The temperature stimuli consisted of water at 10 degrees C, 23(More)
Extracellular action potentials were recorded from 73 neurons in the parvicellular division of the ventroposteromedial (VPMpc) nucleus of the thalamus of anesthetized Wistar rats during gustatory, thermal, and tactile stimulation of the whole oral cavity. The stimulus array consisted of 16 room-temperature (23 degrees C) sapid stimuli, distilled water at(More)
To gain insight into which parameters of neural activity are important in shaping the perception of odors, we combined a behavioral measure of odor perception with optical imaging of odor representations at the level of receptor neuron input to the rat olfactory bulb. Instead of the typical test of an animal's ability to discriminate two familiar odorants(More)
Complementary neurophysiological recordings in macaques and functional neuroimaging in humans show that the primary taste cortex in the rostral insula and adjoining frontal operculum provides separate and combined representations of the taste, temperature, and texture (including viscosity and fat texture) of food in the mouth independently of hunger and(More)
Many mammals display brief bouts of high-frequency (4-10 Hz) sniffing when sampling odors. Given this, high-frequency sniffing is thought to play an important role in odor information processing. Here, we asked what role rapid sampling behavior plays in odor coding and odor discrimination by monitoring sniffing during performance of discrimination tasks(More)