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The Behavior Expression Animation Toolkit (BEAT) allows animators to input typed text that they wish to be spoken by an animated human figure, and to obtain as output appropriate and synchronized nonverbal behaviors and synthesized speech in a form that can be sent to a number of different animation systems. The nonverbal behaviors are assigned on the basis(More)
We describe an implemented system which <italic>automatically</italic> generates and animates conversations between multiple human-like agents with appropriate and synchronized speech, intonation, facial expressions, and hand gestures. Conversation is created by a dialogue planner that produces the text as well as the intonation of the utterances. The(More)
More than another friendly face, Rea knows how to have a conversation with living, breathing human users with a wink, a nod, and a sidelong glance. A nimals and humans all manifest social qualities and skills. Dogs recognize dominance and submission , stand corrected by their superiors, demonstrate consistent personalities, and so forth. On the other hand,(More)
Embodied conversational agents (ECAs) are not just computer interfaces represented by way of human or animal bodies. And they are not just interfaces where those human or animal bodies are lifelike or believable in their actions and their reactions to human users. Embodied conversational agents are specifically conversational in their behaviors, and(More)
This paper addresses the issue of designing embodied conversational agents that exhibit appropriate posture shifts during dialogues with human users. Previous research has noted the importance of hand gestures, eye gaze and head nods in conversations between embodied agents and humans. We present an analysis of human monologues and dialogues that suggests(More)
When talking about spatial domains, humans frequently accompany their explanations with iconic gestures to depict what they are referring to. For example, when giving directions, it is common to see people making gestures that indicate the shape of buildings, or outline a route to be taken by the listener, and these gestures are essential to the(More)
It will not be possible to apply exactly the same teaching process to the machine as to a normal child. It will not, for instance, be provided with legs, so that it could not be asked to go out and fill the coal scuttle. Possibly it might not have eyes. But however well these deficiencies might be overcome by clever engineering, one could not send the(More)
Since the beginning of the SAIBA effort to unify key interfaces in the multi-modal behavior generation process, the Behavior Markup Language (BML) has both gained ground as an important component in many projects worldwide, and continues to undergo further refinement. This paper reports on the progress made in the last year in further developing BML. It(More)