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Retinoblastoma is an aggressive childhood cancer of the developing retina that is initiated by the biallelic loss of RB1. Tumours progress very quickly following RB1 inactivation but the underlying mechanism is not known. Here we show that the retinoblastoma genome is stable, but that multiple cancer pathways can be epigenetically deregulated. To identify(More)
Rhabdomyosarcoma is a soft-tissue sarcoma with molecular and cellular features of developing skeletal muscle. Rhabdomyosarcoma has two major histologic subtypes, embryonal and alveolar, each with distinct clinical, molecular, and genetic features. Genomic analysis shows that embryonal tumors have more structural and copy number variations than alveolar(More)
It is widely believed that the molecular and cellular features of a tumor reflect its cell of origin and can thus provide clues about treatment targets. The retinoblastoma cell of origin has been debated for over a century. Here, we report that human and mouse retinoblastomas have molecular, cellular, and neurochemical features of multiple cell classes,(More)
Retinoblastoma is a rare childhood cancer of the developing retina. Most retinoblastomas initiate with biallelic inactivation of the RB1 gene through diverse mechanisms including point mutations, nucleotide insertions, deletions, loss of heterozygosity and promoter hypermethylation. Recently, a novel mechanism of retinoblastoma initiation was proposed.(More)
Two distinct pathways for the degradation of mammalian cyclin E have previously been described. One pathway is induced by cyclin E phosphorylation and is dependent on the Cul1/Fbw7-based E3 ligase. The other pathway is dependent on the Cul3-based E3 ligase, but the mechanistic details of this pathway have yet to be elucidated. To establish the role of Cul3(More)
Keap1 acts as a sensor for oxidative/electrophilic stress, an adaptor for Cullin-3-based ubiquitin ligase, and a regulator of Nrf2 activity through the interaction with Nrf2 Neh2 domain. However, the mechanism(s) of Nrf2 migration into the nucleus in response to stress remains largely unknown due to the lack of a reliable antibody for the detection of(More)
Retinoblastoma is a childhood cancer of the developing retina that begins in utero and is diagnosed in the first years of life. Biallelic RB1 gene inactivation is the initiating genetic lesion in retinoblastoma. The p53 gene is intact in human retinoblastoma but the pathway is believed to be suppressed by increased expression of MDM4 (MDMX) and MDM2. Here(More)
In the 1970s, several human retinoblastoma cell lines were developed from cultures of primary tumors. As the human retinoblastoma cell lines were established in culture, growth properties and changes in cell adhesion were described. Those changes correlated with the ability of the human retinoblastoma cell lines to invade the optic nerve and metastasize in(More)
Cancer can involve non-resolving, persistent inflammation where varying numbers of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) infiltrate and adopt different activation states between anti-tumor M1 and pro-tumor M2 phenotypes. Here, we resolve a cascade causing differential macrophage phenotypes in the tumor microenvironment. Reduction in TNF mRNA production or(More)
Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of human cancer are important for advancing our understanding of tumor initiation and progression as well as for testing novel therapeutics. Retinoblastoma is a childhood cancer of the developing retina that initiates with biallelic inactivation of the RB1 gene. GEMMs faithfully recapitulate the histopathology,(More)