Learn More
Phytochelatins (PCs) are glutathione-derived peptides that function in heavy metal detoxification in plants and certain fungi. Recent research in Arabidopsis has shown that PCs undergo long-distance transport between roots and shoots. However, it remains unknown which tissues or vascular systems, xylem or phloem, mediate PC translocation and whether PC(More)
Antimicrobial peptides serve as a first line of innate immune defense against invading organisms such as bacteria and viruses. In this study, we hypothesized that peptides produced by a normal microbial resident of human skin, Staphylococcus epidermidis, might also act as an antimicrobial shield and contribute to normal defense at the epidermal interface.(More)
Chromogranin A (CgA), the major soluble protein in chromaffin granules, is proteolytically processed to generate biologically active peptides including the catecholamine release inhibitory peptide catestatin. Here we sought to determine whether cysteine protease cathepsin L (CTSL), a novel enzyme for proteolytic processing of neuropeptides, acts like the(More)
Fatty acid, polyketide, and nonribosomal peptide biosynthetic enzymes perform structural modifications upon small molecules that remain tethered to a carrier protein. This manuscript details the design and analysis of cross-linking substrates that are selective for acyl carrier proteins and their cognate condensing enzymes. These inactivators are engineered(More)
Microorganisms catalyze the formation of naturally occurring Mn oxides, but little is known about the biochemical mechanisms of this important biogeochemical process. We used tandem mass spectrometry to directly analyze the Mn(II)-oxidizing enzyme from marine Bacillus spores, identified as an Mn oxide band with an in-gel activity assay. Nine distinct(More)
A new type of manganese-oxidizing enzyme has been identified in two alphaproteobacteria, "Aurantimonas manganoxydans" strain SI85-9A1 and Erythrobacter sp. strain SD-21. These proteins were identified by tandem mass spectrometry of manganese-oxidizing bands visualized by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in-gel activity assays and fast protein(More)
The plasma level of chromogranin A (CgA) is elevated in genetic hypertension. Conversely, the plasma level of the CgA peptide catestatin is diminished in individuals with established hypertension and those with a genetic risk of this disease. Resequencing of the human CHGA gene identified three naturally occurring variants of catestatin (Gly364Ser,(More)
Selective lowering of Abeta42 levels (the 42-residue isoform of the amyloid-beta peptide) with small-molecule gamma-secretase modulators (GSMs), such as some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, is a promising therapeutic approach for Alzheimer's disease. To identify the target of these agents we developed biotinylated photoactivatable GSMs. GSM(More)
Selective lowering of Aβ42 levels (the 42-residue isoform of the amyloid-β peptide) with small-molecule γ-secretase modulators (GSMs), such as some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, is a promising therapeutic approach for Alzheimer's disease 1. To identify the target of these agents we developed biotinylated photo-activatable GSMs. GSM photoprobes did(More)
Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) transcription factors regulate genes responsible for critical cellular processes. IkappaBalpha, -beta, and -epsilon bind to NF-kappaBs and inhibit their transcriptional activity. The NF-kappaB-binding domains of IkappaBs contain six ankyrin repeats (ARs), which adopt a beta-hairpin/alpha-helix/loop/alpha-helix/loop(More)