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The traditional approach to studying brain function is to measure physiological responses to controlled sensory, motor and cognitive paradigms. However, most of the brain's energy consumption is devoted to ongoing metabolic activity not clearly associated with any particular stimulus or behaviour. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in humans(More)
During a shift of gaze, an object can move along with gaze or stay fixed in the world. To examine the effect of an object's reference frame on spatial working memory, we trained monkeys to memorize locations of visual stimuli as either fixed in the world or fixed to gaze. Each trial consisted of an initial reference frame instruction, followed by a(More)
To examine the distribution of visual and oculomotor activity across the macaque brain, we performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on awake, behaving monkeys trained to perform visually guided saccades. Two subjects alternated between periods of making saccades and central fixations while blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) images were(More)
BACKGROUND Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder that may consist of multiple etiologies and disease processes. Auditory hallucinations (AH), which are common and often disabling, represent a narrower and more basic dimension of psychosis than schizophrenia. Previous studies suggest that abnormal primary auditory cortex activity is associated with AH(More)
The capacity to identify the unique functional architecture of an individual's brain is a crucial step toward personalized medicine and understanding the neural basis of variation in human cognition and behavior. Here we developed a cortical parcellation approach to accurately map functional organization at the individual level using resting-state(More)
IMPORTANCE Psychotic disorders (including schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and psychotic bipolar disorder) are devastating illnesses characterized by breakdown in the integration of information processing. Recent advances in neuroimaging allow for the estimation of brain networks on the basis of intrinsic functional connectivity, but the specific(More)
Smooth pursuit and saccades perform different functions for vision, though they both use visual inputs to move the eyes. The goal of the present study was to determine which macaque brain areas were active for both types of eye movement and which areas were specific to one type of movement. We compared the cortical substrates for smooth and saccadic eye(More)
Eighteen participants were imaged using fMRI to explore whether brain regions predicting successful verbal memory encoding during semantic decisions would continue to predict encoding during structural (non-semantic) decisions. Consistent with prior studies, left inferior frontal and fusiform regions were more active during semantic than structural(More)
There is growing evidence that schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) overlap significantly in risk factors, neurobiological features, clinical presentations, and outcomes. SZ is characterized by well documented gray matter (GM) abnormalities in multiple frontal, temporal and subcortical structures. Recent voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies and(More)