Justin Stanich Feinstein

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Decision making and risk taking are interrelated processes that are important for daily functioning. The somatic marker hypothesis has provided a conceptual basis for processes involved in risk-taking decision making and has been used to link discrete neural substrates to risk-related behaviors. This investigation examined the hypothesis that the degree of(More)
OBJECTIVE Increased amygdala reactivity during processing of certain types of emotional stimuli (e.g., fear, anger) has been observed in patients with anxiety disorders such as social phobia and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is uncertain whether this heightened amygdala reactivity is specific to treatment-seeking patients with anxiety disorders(More)
BACKGROUND Functional neuroimaging may elucidate the pathophysiologic features of anxiety disorders and the site of action of anxiolytic drugs. A large body of evidence suggests that the amygdala and associated limbic structures play a critical role in the expression of anxiety and may be treatment targets for anxiolytic drugs. OBJECTIVE To determine(More)
A network of cortical brain regions, including the insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), has been proposed as the critical and sole substrate for interoceptive awareness. Combining lesion and pharmacological approaches in humans, we found that the insula and ACC were not critical for awareness of heartbeat sensations. Instead, this awareness was(More)
Although clinical observations suggest that humans with amygdala damage have abnormal fear reactions and a reduced experience of fear, these impressions have not been systematically investigated. To address this gap, we conducted a new study in a rare human patient, SM, who has focal bilateral amygdala lesions. To provoke fear in SM, we exposed her to live(More)
In recent years, cognitive neuroscientists have began to explore the process of how sensory information gains access to awareness. To further probe this process, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used while testing subjects with a paradigm known as the "attentional blink." In this paradigm, visually presented information(More)
Affective appraisal often involves processing complex and ambiguous stimuli, such as the mood of a group people. However, affective neuroimaging research often uses individual faces as stimuli when exploring the neural circuitry involved in social appraisal. Results from studies using single face paradigms may not generalize to settings where multiple faces(More)
Decades of research have highlighted the amygdala's influential role in fear. We found that inhalation of 35% CO(2) evoked not only fear, but also panic attacks, in three rare patients with bilateral amygdala damage. These results indicate that the amygdala is not required for fear and panic, and make an important distinction between fear triggered by(More)
Decision-making is a complex process that comprises the assessment of a situation, the selection of an action, and the evaluation of an outcome. Distinct neural systems may contribute differentially during various stages within a decision-making situation. This study investigated whether neural activation during assessment or action selection is critically(More)
It has been proposed that self-awareness (SA), a multifaceted phenomenon central to human consciousness, depends critically on specific brain regions, namely the insular cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Such a proposal predicts that damage to these regions should disrupt or even abolish SA. We tested this(More)