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Many studies examine the importance of teachers in students' learning, but few quantitative analyses exist of the contribution of principals. We measure the effect of principals on gains in math and reading test scores in grades three through eight in North Carolina schools between 1998 and 2009, and estimate the standard deviation of principals' value(More)
Spreadsheets are perhaps the most ubiquitous form of end-user programming software. This paper describes a corpus, called Fuse, containing 2,127,284 URLs that return spreadsheets (and their HTTP server responses), and 249,376 unique spreadsheets, contained within a public web archive of over 26.83 billion pages. Obtained using nearly 60,000 hours of(More)
Security tools can help developers answer questions about potential vulnerabilities in their code. A better understanding of the types of questions asked by developers may help toolsmiths design more effective tools. In this paper, we describe how we collected and categorized these questions by conducting an exploratory study with novice and experienced(More)
It is no secret that females engage less in programming fields than males. However, in online communities, such as Stack Overflow, this gender gap is even more extreme: only 5.8% of contributors are female. In this paper, we use a mixed-methods approach to identify contribution barriers females face in online communities. Through 22 semi-structured(More)
While there are a variety of existing tools to help detect security vulnerabilities in code, they are seldom used by developers due to the time or security expertise required. We are investigating techniques integrated within the IDE to help developers detect and mitigate security vulnerabilities. In this paper, we examine using interactive annotation for(More)
Recent research and policy directives have emerged with a focus on sustainable management of waste materials, and the mining of old landfills represents an opportunity to meet sustainability goals by reducing the release of liquid- and gas-phase contaminants into the environment, recovering land for more productive use, and recovering energy from the(More)
Program analysis tools use notifications to communicate with developers, but previous research suggests that developers encounter challenges that impede this communication. This paper describes a qualitative study that identifies 10 kinds of challenges that cause notifications to miscommunicate with developers. Our resulting notification communication(More)
Security vulnerabilities are often accidentally introduced as developers implement code. While there are a variety of existing tools to help detect security vulnerabilities, they are seldom used by developers due to the time or security expertise required. We are investigating techniques integrated within the IDE to help developers detect and mitigate(More)
In integrated development environments, developers receive compiler error messages through a variety of textual and visual mechanisms, such as popups and wavy red underlines. Although error messages are the primary means of communicating defects to developers, researchers have a limited understanding on how developers actually use these messages to resolve(More)
Current static-analysis tools are often long-running, which causes them to be sidelined into nightly build checks. As a result, developers rarely use such tools to detect bugs when writing code, because they disrupt their workflow. In this paper, we present Cheetah, a static taint analysis tool for Android apps that interleaves bug fixing and code(More)