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UNLABELLED The HIV/AIDS epidemic continues to have a devastating impact on the black community in the United States. Trusted community institutions within the black community--the Black Church among them--have often been reluctant to respond to the epidemic in a manner commensurate with the scope of the problem. The aim of the current study was to(More)
Many studies examine the importance of teachers in students' learning, but few quantitative analyses exist of the contribution of principals. We measure the effect of principals on gains in math and reading test scores in grades three through eight in North Carolina schools between 1998 and 2009, and estimate the standard deviation of principals' value(More)
Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) of color are at particularly increased risk for HIV infection compared to white MSM. National data highlight the need to link YMSM of color to care to improve their overall health and stem further infections, yet, there is limited data on interventions and clinical outcomes focused on engaging and retaining youth,(More)
Bullying is a form of violence characterized as an aggressive behavior that is unprovoked and intended to cause harm. Prior studies have found that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth experience high levels of bullying related to their sexuality and this harassment can lead to engagement in risk behaviors, depression, and suicide.(More)
BACKGROUND Over half of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in the United States occur among men who have sex with men (MSM). Among MSM, 16% of estimated new infections in 2010 occurred among black MSM <25 years old. METHODOLOGY We analyzed National HIV Behavioral Surveillance data on MSM from 20 cities. Poisson models were used to test racial(More)
Spreadsheets are perhaps the most ubiquitous form of end-user programming software. This paper describes a corpus, called Fuse, containing 2,127,284 URLs that return spreadsheets (and their HTTP server responses), and 249,376 unique spreadsheets, contained within a public web archive of over 26.83 billion pages. Obtained using nearly 60,000 hours of(More)
In integrated development environments, developers receive compiler error messages through a variety of textual and visual mechanisms, such as popups and wavy red underlines. Although error messages are the primary means of communicating defects to developers, researchers have a limited understanding on how developers actually use these messages to resolve(More)
In the 1950s, Puerto Rico began an active industrialization program. We used data from the 1982 Puerto Rico Fertility and Family Planning Assessment to describe the trend in the incidence of breastfeeding in Puerto Rico over time and to ascertain some of its determinants. From 1946 through 1982, 5,884 infants were born among this statistically(More)
In the South-East Asia Region (SEAR) of WHO, paralytic poliomyelitis has decreased from 25,711 cases in 1988 to 3304 cases in 1995, representing an 87% reduction. By 1995, in 6 of 10 member countries--India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Nepal, Indonesia, and Democratic People's Republic of Korea--polio remained endemic. Two countries, Sri Lanka and Thailand, appear(More)
In the period 1970-1977, an estimated 4,236,000 women 15-44 years of age had tubal sterilization operations in United States hospitals. Both the number and the rate of tubal sterilizations increased each year from 1970-1977, but in 1978 both declined. Tubal sterilization rates for Black women were higher than for White women. Black women also tended to be(More)