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Many studies examine the importance of teachers in students' learning, but few quantitative analyses exist of the contribution of principals. We measure the effect of principals on gains in math and reading test scores in grades three through eight in North Carolina schools between 1998 and 2009, and estimate the standard deviation of principals' value(More)
Social subjugation has widespread consequences affecting behavior and underlying neural systems. We hypothesized that individual differences in stress responsiveness were associated with differential expression of neurotrophin associated genes within the hippocampus and amygdala. To do this we examined the brains of hamsters placed in resident/intruder(More)
By creating the Visible Burrow System (VBS) Bob Blanchard found a way to study the interaction of genetics, physiology, environment, and adaptive significance in a model with broad validity. The VBS changed the way we think about anxiety and affective disorders by allowing the mechanisms which control them to be observed in a dynamic setting. Critically,(More)
Security tools can help developers answer questions about potential vulnerabilities in their code. A better understanding of the types of questions asked by developers may help toolsmiths design more effective tools. In this paper, we describe how we collected and categorized these questions by conducting an exploratory study with novice and experienced(More)
In a newly developed conceptual model of stressful social decision-making, the Stress-Alternatives Model (SAM; used for the 1st time in mice) elicits two types of response: escape or remain submissively. Daily (4d) aggressive social interaction in a neutral arena between a C57BL6/N test mouse and a larger, novel aggressive CD1 mouse, begin after an audible(More)
It is no secret that females engage less in programming fields than males. However, in online communities, such as Stack Overflow, this gender gap is even more extreme: only 5.8% of contributors are female. In this paper, we use a mixed-methods approach to identify contribution barriers females face in online communities. Through 22 semi-structured(More)
Spreadsheets are perhaps the most ubiquitous form of end-user programming software. This paper describes a corpus, called Fuse, containing 2,127,284 URLs that return spreadsheets (and their HTTP server responses), and 249,376 unique spreadsheets, contained within a public web archive of over 26.83 billion pages. Obtained using nearly 60,000 hours of(More)
Escalation of anxious behavior while environmentally and socially relevant contextual events amplify the intensity of emotional response produces a testable gradient of anxiety shaped by integrative circuitries. Apprehension of the Stress-Alternatives Model apparatus (SAM) oval open field (OF) is measured by the active latency to escape, and is delayed by(More)
While there are a variety of existing tools to help detect security vulnerabilities in code, they are seldom used by developers due to the time or security expertise required. We are investigating techniques integrated within the IDE to help developers detect and mitigate security vulnerabilities. In this paper, we examine using interactive annotation for(More)
Security vulnerabilities are often accidentally introduced as developers implement code. While there are a variety of existing tools to help detect security vulnerabilities, they are seldom used by developers due to the time or security expertise required. We are investigating techniques integrated within the IDE to help developers detect and mitigate(More)