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Energy costs are quickly rising in large-scale data centers and are soon projected to overtake the cost of hardware. As a result, data center operators have recently started turning into using more energy-friendly hardware. Despite the growing body of research in power management techniques, there has been little work to date on energy efficiency from a(More)
Hybrid main memories composed of DRAM as a cache to scalable non-volatile memories such as phase-change memory (PCM) can provide much larger storage capacity than traditional main memories. A key challenge for enabling high-performance and scalable hybrid memories, though, is efficiently managing the metadata (e.g., tags) for data cached in DRAM at a fine(More)
Servers use flash memory based solid state drives (SSDs) as a high-performance alternative to hard disk drives to store persistent data. Unfortunately, recent increases in flash density have also brought about decreases in chip-level reliability. In a data center environment, flash-based SSD failures can lead to downtime and, in the worst case, data loss.(More)
Phase change memory (PCM) is a promising technology that can offer higher capacity than DRAM. Unfortunately, PCM's access latency and energy are higher than DRAM's and its endurance is lower. Many DRAM-PCM hybrid memory systems use DRAM as a cache to PCM, to achieve the low access latency and energy, and high endurance of DRAM, while taking advantage of(More)
New phase-change memory (PCM) devices have low-access latencies (like DRAM) and high capacities (i.e., low cost per bit, like Flash). In addition to being able to scale to smaller cell sizes than DRAM, a PCM cell can also store multiple bits per cell (referred to as multilevel cell, or MLC), enabling even greater capacity per bit. However, reading and(More)
Memory devices represent a key component of datacenter total cost of ownership (TCO), and techniques used to reduce errors that occur on these devices increase this cost. Existing approaches to providing reliability for memory devices pessimistically treat all data as equally vulnerable to memory errors. Our key insight is that there exists a diverse(More)
Computing systems use dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) as main memory. As prior works have shown, failures in DRAM devices are an important source of errors in modern servers. To reduce the effects of memory errors, error correcting codes (ECC) have been developed to help detect and correct errors when they occur. In order to develop effective(More)
DRAM-based main memories have read operations that destroy the read data, and as a result, must buffer large amounts of data on each array access to keep chip costs low. Unfortunately, system-level trends such as increased memory contention in multi-core architectures and data mapping schemes that improve memory parallelism may cause only a small amount of(More)
DRAM-based main memories have read operations that destroy the read data, and as a result, must buffer large amounts of data on each array access to keep chip costs low. Unfortunately, system-level trends such as increased memory contention in multi-core architectures and data mapping schemes that improve memory parallelism lead to only a small amount of(More)
Power consumption and energy efficiency are important factors in the initial design and day-to-day management of computer systems. Researchers and system designers need benchmarks that characterize energy efficiency to evaluate systems and identify promising new technologies. To predict the effects of new designs and configurations, they also need accurate(More)