Justin Mark J Young

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Exertional heat illness can be a serious consequence of sports or exercise in hot environments. Participants can possess intrinsic or face extrinsic risk factors that may increase their risk for heat-related illness. Knowledge of the physiology and pathology of heat illness, identification of risk factors, and strategies to combat heat accumulation will aid(More)
This article provides a description of the administrative model that enabled a city-wide integration effort between Greater Toronto Area hospitals and Toronto Emergency Medical Services in the care of patients within the city of Toronto with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). This administrative structure, known as the Toronto Heart Attack(More)
A request for a preparticipation medical evaluation for wilderness watersports may be made by guiding agencies, instructional camps, or by patients presenting for an annual visit. Although guidelines have been published regarding preparticipation physical evaluation for traditional competitive high school and collegiate sports, little has been written about(More)
Wilderness sports and adventures continue to increase in popularity. Counseling is an essential element of the preparticipation evaluation (PPE) for athletes in traditional sports. This approach can be applied to and augmented for the wilderness athlete and adventurer. The authors reviewed the literature on counseling during PPEs and gathered expert opinion(More)
Using Kadeishvili’s [11] formulas with appropriate signs, we show that the classical cobar construction from coalgebras to algebras Ω : CoAlg → Alg can be enhanced to a functor from Hopf algebras to E2 algebras (for a certain choice of E2 operad) Ω : HopfAlg → E2Alg, which, unlike its classical counterpart, is not strictly adjoint, but homotopically(More)
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