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Period determination in the mammalian circadian clock involves the turnover rate of the repressors CRY and PER. We show that CRY ubiquitination engages two competing E3 ligase complexes that either lengthen or shorten circadian period in mice. Cloning of a short-period circadian mutant, Past-time, revealed a glycine to glutamate missense mutation in Fbxl21,(More)
Extracellular plaques of amyloid-β and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles made from tau are the histopathological signatures of Alzheimer's disease. Plaques comprise amyloid-β fibrils that assemble from monomeric and oligomeric intermediates, and are prognostic indicators of Alzheimer's disease. Despite the importance of plaques to Alzheimer's disease,(More)
The neurexin-1 gene (NRXN1) has been shown to play a fundamental role in synaptogenesis and synaptic maintenance, as well as Ca(2+) channel and NMDA receptor recruitment. A recent study reported that NRXN1 is associated with nicotine dependence (ND); this, together with the intriguing physiological functions of the gene, motivated us to investigate the(More)
Thioflavin T Assays Peptides were diluted from monomeric solutions in hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) into PBS to a final peptide concentration of 5 µM and then were incubated at 37° C for the indicated times. At each time point, samples of 100 µl each were placed in 96-well black-walled plates (Corning) taken, 5 µl of 200 µM thioflavin-T (Sigma-Aldrich) were(More)
Alzheimer disease (AD) has traditionally been thought to involve the misfolding and aggregation of two different factors that contribute in parallel to pathogenesis: amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, which represent proteolytic fragments of the transmembrane amyloid precursor protein, and tau, which normally functions as a neuronally enriched, microtubule-associated(More)
OBJECTIVE Arachidonic acid is metabolized by 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) to 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) and has an important role in the regulation of angiogenesis and endothelial cell proliferation and migration. The goal of this study was to investigate whether 12-LOX plays a role in retinal neovascularization (NV). RESEARCH DESIGN AND(More)
Alpha crystallins are small heat shock proteins essential to normal ocular lens function. They also help maintain homeostasis in many non-ocular vertebrate tissues and their expression levels change in multiple diseases of the nervous and cardiovascular system and during cancer. The specific roles that α-crystallins may play in eye development are unclear.(More)
The glutamate receptor gene, ionotropic N-methyl-D-aspartate 3A (GRIN3A), is one of the seven that code for subunits of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, which play an essential role at many synapses in the brain, regulating ion flow across membranes in response to glutamate signaling. In this study, we analyzed 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)(More)
Alzheimer disease (AD) has traditionally been thought to involve the misfolding and aggregation of two different factors that contribute in parallel to pathogenesis: amyloid-j3 (Aj3) peptides, which represent proteolytic fragments of the transmembrane amyloid precursor protein, and tau, which normally functions as a neuronally enriched,(More)
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