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Facial width-to-height ratio is a sexually dimorphic metric that is independent of body size and may have been shaped by sexual selection. We recently showed that this metric is correlated with behavioral aggression in men. In Study 1, observers estimated the propensity for aggression of men photographed displaying neutral facial expressions and for whom a(More)
Facial characteristics are an important basis for judgements about gender, emotion, personality, motivational states and behavioural dispositions. Based on a recent finding of a sexual dimorphism in facial metrics that is independent of body size, we conducted three studies to examine the extent to which individual differences in the facial width-to-height(More)
The current study investigated relationships among aggressive behavior, change in salivary testosterone concentrations, and willingness to engage in a competitive task. Thirty-eight male participants provided saliva samples before and after performing the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (a laboratory measure that provides opportunity for aggressive(More)
The extent to which trait factors (baseline testosterone concentrations, trait dominance) and state factors (change in social status, change in testosterone concentrations) would predict reactive aggression in a subsequent task that involved provocation was examined in 99 participants (39 men and 60 women). Participants first competed in same-sex dyads on a(More)
Eisenegger and colleagues [1] recently published in this journal an important review on the role of testosterone (T) in social interaction. We agree with the main premise of the article that T is related to status-seeking (see [2] for a previous review that drew a similar conclusion). The authors, however, overlooked the important roles of gender and social(More)
Recent studies suggest that psychopathy may be associated with dysfunction in the neural circuitry supporting both threat- and reward-related processes. However, these studies have involved small samples and often focused on extreme groups. Thus, it is unclear to what extent current findings may generalize to psychopathic traits in the general population.(More)
Testosterone concentrations fluctuate rapidly in response to competitive and aggressive interactions, suggesting that changes in testosterone rather than baseline differences shape ongoing and/or future competitive and aggressive behaviors. Although recent experiments in animal models provide compelling empirical support for this idea, studies in humans(More)
The facial width-to-height ratio, a size-independent sexually dimorphic property of the human face, is correlated with aggressive behaviour in men. Furthermore, observers' estimates of aggression from emotionally neutral faces are accurate and are highly correlated with the facial width-to-height ratio. We investigated whether observers use the facial(More)
The amygdala is critically involved in mediating physiological and behavioral responses to threat. In particular, neuroimaging research indicates that the amygdala is highly responsive to facial signals of threat such as fearful and angry expressions. However, individuals differ substantially in both their relative sensitivity to threat and the magnitude of(More)
Previous research indicates that testosterone concentrations are highly responsive to human competitive interactions and that winners have elevated testosterone concentrations relative to losers. Also, there is some evidence that simply observing others compete can have a similar effect on the endocrine system. Here, in two studies, we examined the extent(More)