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The anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum produces several related neurotoxins that block exocytosis of synaptic vesicles in nerve terminals and that are responsible for the clinical manifestations of botulism. Recently, it was reported that botulinum neurotoxin type B as well as tetanus toxin act as zinc-dependent proteases that specifically cleave(More)
Neurotransmitter release is potently blocked by a group of structurally related toxin proteins produced by Clostridium botulinum. Botulinum neurotoxin type B (BoNT/B) and tetanus toxin (TeTx) are zinc-dependent proteases that specifically cleave synaptobrevin (VAMP), a membrane protein of synaptic vesicles. Here we report that inhibition of transmitter(More)
Tetanus toxin (TeTx) and the various forms of botulinal neurotoxins (BoNT/A to BoNT/G) potently inhibit neurotransmission by means of their L chains which selectively proteolyze synaptic proteins such as synaptobrevin (TeTx, BoNT/B, BoNT/F), SNAP-25 (BoNT/A), and syntaxin (BoNT/C1). Here we show that BoNT/D cleaves rat synaptobrevin 1 and 2 in toxified(More)
Syntaxin 1 and synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kD (SNAP-25) are neuronal plasmalemma proteins that appear to be essential for exocytosis of synaptic vesicles (SVs). Both proteins form a complex with synaptobrevin, an intrinsic membrane protein of SVs. This binding is thought to be responsible for vesicle docking and apparently precedes membrane fusion.(More)
Recent studies have suggested a role for neurotrophins in the growth and refinement of neural connections, in dendritic growth, and in activity-dependent adult plasticity. To unravel the role of endogenous neurotrophins in the development of neural connections in the CNS, we studied the ontogeny of hippocampal afferents in trkB (-/-) and trkC (-/-) mice.(More)
Tetanus toxin and botulinal toxins are potent inhibitors of neuronal exocytosis. Within the past five years the protein sequences of all eight neurotoxins have been determined, their mode of action as metalloproteases has been established, and their intraneuronal targets have been identified. The toxins act by selectively proteolysing the synaptic vesicle(More)
Clostridial neurotoxins, tetanus toxin (TeTx) and the seven related but serologically distinct botulinal neurotoxins (BoNT/A to BoNT/G), are potent inhibitors of synaptic vesicle exocytosis in nerve endings. Recently it was reported that the light chains of clostridial neurotoxins act as zinc-dependent metalloproteases which specifically cleave synaptic(More)
The chromogranin/secretogranin family of proteins is widely distributed in the central nervous system, where they are stored in large dense-core vesicles. These proproteins are actively processed into small neuroactive peptides, which influence neurotransmitter release, microglial activation and monocyte migration. These properties suggest a possible role(More)
Syntaxin 1 has been shown to play an outstanding role in synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Two isoforms of this protein are expressed in neurons, syntaxin 1A and 1B. However, the physiological significance of the occurrence of such closely related isoforms is not still understood. Here, by means of isoform-specific immunocytochemistry, we show that syntaxin 1A(More)
Electrophysiological, morphological, and biochemical approaches were combined to study the effect of the presynaptic injection of the light chain of botulinum toxin C1 into the squid giant synapse. Presynaptic injection was accompanied by synaptic block that occurred progressively as the toxin filled the presynaptic terminal. Neither the presynaptic action(More)