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The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) is a well-established modulator of energy balance. Both pharmacological and genetic evidence implicate the serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT(2C)R) as a critical receptor mediator of serotonin's effects on ingestive behavior. Here we characterized the effect of the novel and selective 5-HT(2C)R agonist BVT.X on(More)
Disruption of the gene BSCL2 causes a severe, generalised lipodystrophy, demonstrating the critical role of its protein product, seipin, in human adipose tissue development. Seipin is essential for adipocyte differentiation, whilst the study of seipin in non-adipose cells has suggested a role in lipid droplet formation. However, its precise molecular(More)
OBJECTIVE Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy type 2 (BSCL2) is a recessive disorder featuring near complete absence of adipose tissue. Remarkably, although the causative gene, BSCL2, has been known for several years, its molecular function and its role in adipose tissue development have not been elucidated. Therefore, we examined whether BSCL2 is(More)
An 8-year-old male with a complex developmental syndrome and severe obesity was heterozygous for a de novo missense mutation resulting in a Y722C substitution in the neurotrophin receptor TrkB. This mutation markedly impaired receptor autophosphorylation and signaling to MAP kinase. Mutation of NTRK2, which encodes TrkB, seems to result in a unique human(More)
Inherited defects in signaling pathways downstream of the insulin receptor have long been suggested to contribute to human type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here we describe a mutation in the gene encoding the protein kinase AKT2/PKBbeta in a family that shows autosomal dominant inheritance of severe insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. Expression of the(More)
A key metabolic action of insulin is the stimulation of non-oxidative glucose utilization in skeletal muscle, by increasing both glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis. The molecular mechanism underlying this process has been investigated using a variety of experimental systems. We report here the use of cultured human myoblasts to study insulin control of(More)
Tre-2, BUB2, CDC16, 1 domain family member 4 (TBC1D4) (AS160) is a Rab-GTPase activating protein implicated in insulin-stimulated glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation in adipocytes and myotubes. To determine whether loss-of-function mutations in TBC1D4 might impair GLUT4 translocation and cause insulin resistance in humans, we screened the coding(More)
OBJECTIVE Disruption of the genes encoding either seipin or 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 2 (AGPAT2) causes severe congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) in humans. However, the function of seipin in adipogenesis remains poorly defined. We demonstrated recently that seipin can bind the key adipogenic phosphatidic acid (PA) phosphatase(More)
Sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1 is a transcription factor with important roles in the control of fatty acid metabolism and adipogenesis. Little information is available regarding the expression of this molecule in human health or disease. Exposure of isolated human adipocytes to insulin enhanced SREBP1 gene expression and promoted its(More)
The regulation of glycogen synthesis and associated enzymes was studied in human myoblasts and myotubes maintained in culture. Both epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin stimulated glycogen synthesis approximately 2-fold, this stimulation being accompanied by a rapid and stable activation of the controlling enzyme glycogen synthase (GS). EGF also caused(More)