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Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) has been developed as a highly sensitive process in which reactive species are generated from stable precursors (i.e., the ECL-active label) at the surface of an electrode. This new technology has many distinct advantages over other detection systems: no radioisotopes are used; detection limits for label are extremely low (200(More)
We demonstrate the first use of an electrochemiluminescent (ECL) label, [4-(N-succimidyloxycarbonylpropyl)-4'-methyl-2,2'- bipyridine]ruthenium(II) dihexafluorophosphate (Origen label; IGEN Inc.), in DNA probe assays. This label allows rapid (less than 25 min) quantification and detection of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified products from oncogenes,(More)
We report here our systematic studies of the heme dynamics and induced protein conformational relaxations in two redox states of ferric and ferrous cytochrome c upon femtosecond excitation. With a wide range of probing wavelengths from the visible to the UV and a site-directed mutation we unambiguously determined that the protein dynamics in the two states(More)
Four different carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-binding antibody fragments were prepared using the genes of the variable regions of the T84 epitope-specific antibody 7F7 and phage display techniques. The genes were successfully cloned and expressed in the pCANTAB5 phage display vector to investigate the kinetic binding parameters of each synthesized(More)
We describe the characterization and utility of a new electrochemiluminescent (ECL) label for oligonucleotides, utilizing phosphoramidite chemistry. This phosphoramidite of the tris(2,2-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) complex, bis(2,2-bipyridine)(4-[4-(2-cyanoethoxy-N,N-diisopropyl-amino) phosphinoxybutyl]4'-methyl)2,2-bipyridine ruthenium(II)(More)
Functional antibody fragments may be displayed on the surface of filamentous bacteriophage by introducing variable region genes into the viral genome at a gene encoding a viral coat protein. "Phage display" enables the isolation of antibody genes from large libraries according to the binding specificities they encode. We have constructed a new phage-display(More)
Cryptochromes are blue-light absorbing flavoproteins with multiple signaling roles. In plants, cryptochrome (cry1, cry2) biological activity has been linked to flavin photoreduction via an electron transport chain to the protein surface comprising 3 evolutionarily conserved tryptophan residues known as the 'Trp triad.' Mutation of any of the Trp triad(More)
Cryptochromes are flavoprotein photoreceptors with multiple signaling roles during plant de-etiolation and development. Arabidopsis cryptochromes (cry1 and cry2) absorb light through an oxidized flavin (FADox) cofactor which undergoes reduction to both FADH° and FADH(-) redox states. Since the FADH° redox state has been linked to biological activity, it is(More)
We report here our systematic characterization of resonance energy transfer between intrinsic tryptophan and the prosthetic heme group in myoglobin in order to develop a novel energy-transfer pair as a molecular ruler in heme proteins to study local conformation fluctuations. With site-directed mutagenesis, we designed four tryptophan mutants along the(More)
Two diabody molecules directed against the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were generated from a combinatorial phage display library. The C-termini of diabodies incorporated the FLAG peptide epitope (P008D diabody) or the myc epitope (P001D). Both diabodies have the same antigen-binding site. Equilibrium-binding constants of these molecules were determined(More)