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The theoretical basis of current source-density (CSD) analysis in the central nervous system is described. Equations relating CSD, the current flow vector, and the extracellular field potential are given. It is shown that the CSD provides superior resolution of neuronal events when compared to conventional field-potential analysis. Expressions for the CSD(More)
This paper represents a systematic, semirigorous attempt to optimize the technique of current source-density (CSD) analysis experimentally. We compared different spatial differentiation formulas in terms of accuracy, aliasing, and smoothing, and provide experimental and theoretical rationale for their use. Sources of error have also been investigated.(More)
Vibrio harveyi regulates the expression of bioluminescence (lux) in response to cell density, a phenomenon known as quorum sensing. In V. harveyi, two independent quorum-sensing systems exist, and each produces, detects, and responds to a specific cell density-dependent autoinducer signal. The autoinducers are recognized by two-component hybrid sensor(More)
Growth cones are specialized structures that form the distal tips of growing axons. During both normal development of the nervous system and regeneration of injured nerves, growth cones are essential for elongation and guidance of growing axons. Developmental and regenerative axon growth is frequently accompanied by elevated synthesis of a protein(More)
A major obstacle to understanding the function and development of the vertebrate brain is the difficulty in monitoring dynamic patterns of electrical activity in the millesecond time domain; this has limited investigations of such phenomena as modular organization of functional units, seizure activities and spreading depression. The use of voltage-sensitive(More)
GAP-43 is one of a small subset of cellular proteins selectively transported by a neuron to its terminals. Its enrichment in growth cones and its increased levels in developing or regenerating neurons suggest that it has an important role in neurite growth. A complementary DNA (cDNA) that encodes rat GAP-43 has been isolated to study its structural(More)
This study examines the effect of applied d.c. electric fields on nerve regeneration following injury to the rat sciatic nerve using the circularly vibrating probe and electron microscopy. The transected and treated nerve which received a d.c. electrical stimulator (0.6 mu A) was compared with untreated transected and crushed nerves. At one week(More)
Several studies have shown that nerve fibers grow preferentially toward the cathode when placed in an electrical field. To study the effects of electrical stimulation on in vivo nerve regeneration, an inexpensive implantable current source has been developed which is able to reliably deliver a minute DC current (0.57 microA) via wick electrodes. The current(More)
The p53 transcription factor is a potent suppressor of tumor growth. We report here an analysis of its direct transcriptional program using Global Run-On sequencing (GRO-seq). Shortly after MDM2 inhibition by Nutlin-3, low levels of p53 rapidly activate ∼200 genes, most of them not previously established as direct targets. This immediate response involves(More)