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Converting forest lands into bioenergy agriculture could accelerate climate change by emitting carbon stored in forests, while converting food agriculture lands into bioenergy agriculture could threaten food security. Both problems are potentially avoided by using abandoned agriculture lands for bioenergy agriculture. Here we show the global potential for(More)
[1] Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is an atmospheric trace gas that participates in some key reactions of the carbon cycle and thus holds great promise for studies of carbon cycle processes. Global monitoring networks and atmospheric sampling programs provide concurrent data on COS and CO 2 concentrations in the free troposphere and atmospheric boundary layer over(More)
Increased production of biomass for energy has the potential to offset substantial use of fossil fuels, but it also has the potential to threaten conservation areas, pollute water resources and decrease food security. The net effect of biomass energy agriculture on climate could be either cooling or warming, depending on the crop, the technology for(More)
Mountaintop coal mining (MCM) in the Southern Appalachian forest region greatly impacts both soil and aquatic ecosystems. Policy and practice currently in place emphasize water quality and soil stability but do not consider upland soil health. Here we report soil organic carbon (SOC) measurements and other soil quality indicators for reclaimed soils in the(More)
The method utilized in this investigation was simple, rapid, and quantitative for the measurement of dieldrin and endrin in the blood and tissues of dogs and mice and should be useful in the diagnosis of unknown toxicity syndromes in human beings. Levels of dieldrin in the blood were indicative of the concentrations of these agents in tissues and vital(More)
A method is described for determining the number of bacteria in a solution by the use of a machine which deposits a known volume of sample on a rotating agar plate in an ever decreasing amount in the form of an Archimedes spiral. After the sample is incubated, different colony densities are apparent on the surface of the plate. A modified counting grid is(More)
The dry-heat resistance of Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores located in or on various materials was determined as D and z values in the range of 105 through 160 C. The systems tested included spores located on steel and paper strips, spores located between stainless-steel washers mated together under 150 inch-lb and 12 inch-lb of torque, and spores(More)
The Southern Appalachian forest region of the U.S.--a region responsible for 23% of U.S. coal production--has 24 billion metric tons of high quality coal remaining of which mountaintop coal mining (MCM) will be the primary extraction method. Here we consider greenhouse gas emissions associated with MCM terrestrial disturbance in the life-cycle of coal(More)
The spiral plate count method (SPLPC) was compared with the standard plate count (SPC) method by examining 201 samples of raw and pasteurized milk. Although the means of the two methods differed significantly at alpha = 0.01,the difference was less than 10% and was not considered to be of any practical importance. The pooled replicate variances of both(More)