Justin D. Boyd

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BACKGROUND In models, isoflurane produces neural and behavioral deficits in vitro and in vivo. This study tested the hypothesis that neural stem cells are adversely affected by isoflurane such that it inhibits proliferation and kills these cells. METHODS Sprague-Dawley rat embryonic neural stem cells were plated onto 96-well plates and treated with(More)
Oligodendrocytes derived in the laboratory from stem cells have been proposed as a treatment for acute and chronic injury to the central nervous system. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor alpha (PDGFRalpha) signaling is known to regulate oligodendrocyte precursor cell numbers both during development and adulthood. Here, we analyze the effects of(More)
UNLABELLED Many Gram-negative bacteria utilize specialized secretion systems to inject proteins (effectors) directly into host cells. Little is known regarding how bacteria ensure that only small subsets of the thousands of proteins they encode are recognized as substrates of the secretion systems, limiting their identification through bioinformatic(More)
The cause of 95% of Parkinson's disease (PD) cases is unknown. It is hypothesized that PD arises from an interaction of free-radical-generating agents with an underlying genetic susceptibility to these compounds. Here we use the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine model of parkinsonism to examine the role of a dual function protein, GSTpi, in(More)
A pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD) is deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain. Aβ binds to microglia via a receptor complex that includes CD36 leading to production of proinflammatory cytokines and neurotoxic reactive oxygen species and subsequent neurodegeneration. Interruption of Aβ binding to CD36 is a potential therapeutic strategy for(More)
TDP-43 is an RNA binding protein found to accumulate in the cytoplasm of brain and spinal cord from patients affected with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Nuclear TDP-43 protein regulates transcription through several mechanisms, and under stressed conditions, it forms cytoplasmic aggregates that co-localize(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease whose hallmark pathological features include a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain. Recent studies have described the activation of a stress-induced signal cascade, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-mediated activation of c-Jun, and an increase in the expression of a downstream effector,(More)
Genetic and clinical association studies have identified disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) as a candidate risk gene for major mental illness. DISC1 is interrupted by a balanced chr(1;11) translocation in a Scottish family in which the translocation predisposes to psychiatric disorders. We investigate the consequences of DISC1 interruption in human neural(More)
BACKGROUND The ability to grow a uniform cell type from the adult central nervous system (CNS) is valuable for developing cell therapies and new strategies for drug discovery. The adult mammalian brain is a source of neural stem cells (NSC) found in both neurogenic and non-neurogenic zones but difficulties in culturing these hinders their use as research(More)
Recent work shows that major developmental and clinical processes such as central nervous system regeneration and carcinogenesis involve stem cells (SCs) in the brain. In spite of this importance, the requirements of these SCs and their differentiated offspring (neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes) for survival and proper function are little(More)