Justin C. Williams

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The need to sleep grows with the duration of wakefulness and dissipates with time spent asleep, a process called sleep homeostasis. What are the consequences of staying awake on brain cells, and why is sleep needed? Surprisingly, we do not know whether the firing of cortical neurons is affected by how long an animal has been awake or asleep. Here, we found(More)
The promise of advanced neuroprosthetic systems to significantly improve the quality of life for a segment of the deaf, blind, or paralyzed population hinges on the development of an efficacious, and safe, multichannel neural interface for the central nervous system. The candidate implantable device that is to provide such an interface must exceed a host of(More)
An important aspect of the development of cortical prostheses is the enhancement of suitable implantable microelectrode arrays for chronic neural recording. The objective of this study was to investigate the recording performance of silicon-substrate micromachined probes in terms of reliability and signal quality. These probes were found to consistently and(More)
A variety of decision models have been formulated for the optimal selection of nature reserve sites to represent a diversity of species or other conservation features. Unfortunately, many of these models tend to select scattered sites and do not take into account important spatial attributes such as reserve shape and connectivity. These attributes are(More)
This paper describes a detailed protocol for obtaining chronic, multi-site unit recordings in cerebral cortex of awake animals for periods of three months or more. The protocol includes details for making relatively simple and inexpensive implantable multichannel electrodes that consist of arrays of separate microwires. The results reported in this paper(More)
A series of animal experiments was conducted to characterize changes in the complex impedance of chronically implanted electrodes in neural tissue. Consistent trends in impedance changes were observed across all animals, characterized as a general increase in the measured impedance magnitude at 1 kHz. Impedance changes reach a peak approximately 7 days(More)
CONTEXT Previous studies have reported that the number and distribution of trauma centers are uneven across states, suggesting large differences in access to trauma center care. OBJECTIVE To estimate the proportion of US residents having access to trauma centers within 45 and 60 minutes. DESIGN AND SETTING Cross-sectional study using data from 2(More)
This study aims to examine the changes in task-related brain activity induced by rehabilitative therapy using brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies and whether these changes are relevant to functional gains achieved through the use of these therapies. Stroke patients with persistent upper-extremity motor deficits received interventional rehabilitation(More)
Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology can offer individuals with severe motor disabilities greater independence and a higher quality of life. The BCI systems take recorded brain signals and translate them into real-time actions, for improved communication, movement, or perception. Four patient participants with a clinical need for intracranial(More)
Functional mapping of eloquent cortex is often necessary prior to invasive brain surgery, but current techniques that derive this mapping have important limitations. In this article, we demonstrate the first comprehensive evaluation of a rapid, robust, and practical mapping system that uses passive recordings of electrocorticographic signals. This mapping(More)