Justin C. Mcarthur

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In 1991, the AIDS Task Force of the American Academy of Neurology published nomenclature and research case definitions to guide the diagnosis of neurologic manifestations of HIV-1 infection. Now, 16 years later, the National Institute of Mental Health and the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke have charged a working group to critically(More)
OBJECTIVES This is a cross-sectional, observational study to determine the frequency and associated features of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in a large, diverse sample of infected individuals in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART). METHODS A total of 1,555 HIV-infected adults were recruited from 6 university clinics(More)
Combination antiretroviral therapy (CART) has greatly reduced medical morbidity and mortality with HIV infection, but high rates of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continue to be reported. Because large HIV-infected (HIV+) and uninfected (HIV−) groups have not been studied with similar methods in the pre-CART and CART eras, it is unclear(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether penetration of a combination regimen into the central nervous system (CNS), as estimated by the CNS Penetration-Effectiveness (CPE) rank, is associated with lower cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) viral load. DESIGN Data were analyzed from 467 participants who were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive and who reported(More)
OBJECTIVE HIV dementia is an important neurological complication of advanced HIV infection. The use of a cross-cultural screening test to detect HIV dementia within the international community is critical for diagnosing this condition. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a new screening test for HIV dementia, the(More)
The pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated dementia is unclear, and the underlying pathological substrate has been a matter of debate. In a prospectively clinically characterized population of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients we investigated the relationship between the clinical syndrome of HIV-associated dementia(More)
Activated monocytes release a number of substances, including inflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids, that are highly toxic to cells of the central nervous system. Because monocytic infiltration of the central nervous system closely correlates with HIV-1-associated dementia, it has been suggested that monocyte-derived toxins mediate nervous system damage.(More)
OBJECTIVES HAART suppresses HIV viral replication and restores immune function. The effects of HAART on neurological disease are less well understood. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and incidence of neurocognitive impairment in individuals who initiated HAART as part of an AIDS clinical trial. DESIGN A prospective cohort study of(More)
HIV dementia has an annual incidence of 7% after AIDS development and eventually affects 20% of all HIV-infected persons. Accurate and early diagnosis of HIV dementia can lead to optimized therapeutic and management decisions. The purpose of this study was to design a valid instrument to identify HIV dementia. Five groups totalling 152 outpatients were(More)
This study examined the temporal trends in the incidence rates of HIV dementia, cryptococcal meningitis, toxoplasmosis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, and CNS lymphoma from January 1990 to December 1998 in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. The incidence rates for HIV dementia, cryptococcal meningitis, and lymphoma decreased following the(More)