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The Diels-Alder reaction is a cornerstone in organic synthesis, forming two carbon-carbon bonds and up to four new stereogenic centers in one step. No naturally occurring enzymes have been shown to catalyze bimolecular Diels-Alder reactions. We describe the de novo computational design and experimental characterization of enzymes catalyzing a bimolecular(More)
Microbially produced alkanes are a new class of biofuels that closely match the chemical composition of petroleum-based fuels. Alkanes can be generated from the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway by the reduction of acyl-ACPs followed by decarbonylation of the resulting aldehydes. A current limitation of this pathway is the restricted product profile, which(More)
Computational enzyme design holds promise for the production of renewable fuels, drugs and chemicals. De novo enzyme design has generated catalysts for several reactions, but with lower catalytic efficiencies than naturally occurring enzymes. Here we report the use of game-driven crowdsourcing to enhance the activity of a computationally designed enzyme(More)
The digital recording and processing of information on burn size provides a useful adjunct to the care of patients with burn injuries in the critical care setting. Record keeping is improved and accuracy is enhanced using a simple, portable system based on the widely available IBM Personal Computer. Diagramming burns on a graphic outline of a human body(More)
Type I cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase is composed of a dimeric regulatory subunit (R(2)) and two catalytic subunits (C subunits). The R(2) dimer binds four cAMP molecules to release the two C subunits. To characterize the cAMP binding sites and elucidate their role in the release of the C subunits, the R(2) dimer has been studied by equilibrium(More)
The ability to rationally modify enzymes to perform novel chemical transformations is essential for the rapid production of next-generation protein therapeutics. Here we describe the use of chemical principles to identify a naturally occurring acid-active peptidase, and the subsequent use of computational protein design tools to reengineer its specificity(More)
We describe a computationally designed enzyme, formolase (FLS), which catalyzes the carboligation of three one-carbon formaldehyde molecules into one three-carbon dihydroxyacetone molecule. The existence of FLS enables the design of a new carbon fixation pathway, the formolase pathway, consisting of a small number of thermodynamically favorable chemical(More)
Celiac disease is characterized by intestinal inflammation triggered by gliadin, a component of dietary gluten. Oral administration of proteases that can rapidly degrade gliadin in the gastric compartment has been proposed as a treatment for celiac disease; however, no protease has been shown to specifically reduce the immunogenic gliadin content, in(More)
Identification of residues responsible for functional specificity in enzymes is a challenging and important problem in protein chemistry. Active-site residues are generally easy to identify, but residues outside the active site are also important to catalysis and their identities and roles are more difficult to determine. We report a method based on(More)
By combining targeted mutagenesis, computational refinement, and directed evolution, a modestly active, computationally designed Diels-Alderase was converted into the most proficient biocatalyst for [4+2] cycloadditions known. The high stereoselectivity and minimal product inhibition of the evolved enzyme enabled preparative scale synthesis of a single(More)