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Substantial amounts of data have been generated from patient management and academic exercises designed to better understand the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic and design interventions to control it. A number of specialized databases have been designed to manage huge data sets from HIV cohort, vaccine, host genomic and drug resistance studies.(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and patterns of acquired antiretroviral drug resistance in a rural primary health care programme in South Africa. DESIGN Cross-sectional study nested within HIV treatment programme. METHODS Adult (≥ 18 years) HIV-infected individuals initially treated with a first-line stavudine- or zidovudine-based antiretroviral(More)
HIV-1 drug resistance has the potential to seriously compromise the effectiveness and impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART). As ART programs in sub-Saharan Africa continue to expand, individuals on ART should be closely monitored for the emergence of drug resistance. Surveillance of transmitted drug resistance to track transmission of viral strains already(More)
The rapid scale-up of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and use of single dose Nevirapine (SD NVP) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (pMTCT) have raised fears about the emergence of resistance to the first line antiretroviral drug regimens. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of primary drug resistance(More)
BACKGROUND Better understanding of drug resistance patterns in HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is required to inform public health policies in high prevalence settings. The aim of this study was to characterise the acquired drug resistance in HIV-infected children failing first-line ART in a decentralised rural HIV programme. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Antiretroviral drug resistance is becoming increasingly common with the expansion of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment programmes in high prevalence settings. Genotypic resistance testing could have benefit in guiding individual-level treatment decisions but successful models for delivering resistance testing in low- and middle-income(More)
As more human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients access combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), higher proportions of newly infected patients may be infected with drug-resistant viruses. Regular surveillance of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is required in southern Africa where high rates of transmission persist despite rapid expansion of(More)
Implementing antiretroviral resistance testing in a primary health care HIV treatment programme in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: early experiences, achievements and challenges. Abstract Background: Antiretroviral drug resistance is becoming increasingly common with the expansion of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment programmes in high(More)
Background: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are transmembrane receptors that activate cells of the innate immune systems upon recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The TLR4 is an essential component of the innate immune response to various microorganisms. We investigated the impact of TLR4 polymorphism on development of opportunistic diseases in(More)
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