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Existing ultrasound devices for assessing the human tibia are based on detecting the first arriving signal, corresponding to a wave propagating at, or close to, the bulk longitudinal velocity in bone. However, human long bones are effectively irregular hollow tubes and should theoretically support the propagation of more complex guided modes similar to Lamb(More)
We introduce a new method for mesoscopic modeling of protein diffusion in an entire cell. This method is based on the construction of a three-dimensional digital model cell from confocal microscopy data. The model cell is segmented into the cytoplasm, nucleus, plasma membrane, and nuclear envelope, in which environment protein motion is modeled by fully(More)
Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is a safe, inexpensive, and nonradiation method for bone density assessment. QUS correlates with, and predicts fragility fractures comparable to, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. However, its validity in monitoring bone growth in children is not well understood.(More)
BACKGROUND Obesity and osteoporosis, two possibly related conditions, are rapidly expanding health concerns in modern society. Both of them are associated with sedentary life style and nutrition. To investigate the effects of diet-induced obesity and voluntary physical activity we used high resolution micro-computed tomography (μCT) together with peripheral(More)
Previously it has been demonstrated that cortical bone thickness can be estimated from ultrasonic guided-wave measurements, in an axial transmission configuration, together with an appropriate analytical model. This study considers the impact of bone thickness variation within the measurement region on the ultrasonically determined thickness (UTh). To this(More)
Determination of cortical bone thickness is warranted, e.g., for assessing the level of endosteal resorption in osteoporosis or other bone pathologies. We have shown previously that the velocity of the fundamental antisymmetric (or flexural) guided wave, measured for bone phantoms and bones in vitro, correlates with the cortical thickness significantly(More)
Guided waves, consistent with the A0 Lamb mode, have previously been observed in bone phantoms and human long bones. Reported velocity measurements relied on line fitting of the observed wave fronts. Such an approach has limited ability to assess dispersion and is affected by interference by other wave modes. For a more robust identification of modes and(More)
Stochastic driven flow along a channel can be modeled by the asymmetric simple exclusion process. We confirm numerically the presence of a dynamic queuing phase transition at a nonzero obstruction strength, and establish its scaling properties. Below the transition, the traffic jam is macroscopic in the sense that the length of the queue scales linearly(More)
The ultrasonic axial transmission technique has been proposed as a method for cortical bone characterization. Using a low enough center frequency, Lamb modes can be excited in long bones. Lamb waves propagate throughout the cortical bone layer, which makes them appealing for characterizing bone material and geometrical properties. In the present study, a(More)
It has been shown previously that dynamic fragmentation of brittle D -dimensional objects in a D -dimensional space gives rise to a power-law contribution to the fragment-size distribution with a universal scaling exponent 2-1/D . We demonstrate that in fragmentation of two-dimensional brittle objects in three-dimensional space, an additional fragmentation(More)