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Before childhood vaccination was introduced in the 1940s, pertussis was a major cause of infant death worldwide. Widespread vaccination of children succeeded in reducing illness and death. In the 1990s, a resurgence of pertussis was observed in a number of countries with highly vaccinated populations, and pertussis has become the most prevalent(More)
Bordetella pertussis causes pertussis, a respiratory disease that is most severe for infants. Vaccination was introduced in the 1950s, and in recent years, a resurgence of disease was observed worldwide, with significant mortality in infants. Possible causes for this include the switch from whole-cell vaccines (WCVs) to less effective acellular vaccines(More)
BACKGROUND Bordetella pertussis is a gram-negative bacterium that infects the human respiratory tract and causes pertussis or whooping cough. The disease has resurged in many countries including Finland where the whole-cell pertussis vaccine has been used for more than 50 years. Antigenic divergence has been observed between vaccine strains and clinical(More)
BACKGROUND Human nasopharynx is often colonized by potentially pathogenic bacteria. Gene polymorphisms in mannose-binding lectin (MBL), toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 have been reported. The present study aimed to investigate possible association between nasopharyngeal bacterial colonization and gene polymorphisms of MBL, TLR2 and TLR4 in healthy(More)
Pertussis infection is increasingly recognized in older children and adults, indicating the need of booster immunizations in these age groups. We investigated the induction of pertussis-specific immunity in schoolchildren and adults after booster immunization and natural infection. The expression of mRNA of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), interleukin-2(More)
We used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis and genotyping to compare clinical isolates of Bordetella pertussis recovered since the early 1990s in Finland and France, 2 countries with similar histories of long-term mass vaccination with whole-cell pertussis vaccines. Isolates from both countries were similar genetically but varied temporally.
To monitor changes in Bordetella pertussis populations, mainly two typing methods are used; Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA). In this study, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing method, based on 87 SNPs, was developed and compared with PFGE and MLVA. The discriminatory indices(More)
Recently, eight allelic variants of the pertactin gene (prn1-8) have been characterized in Bordetella pertussis strains isolated in Europe and the United States. It has been suggested that the divergence of the pertactin types of clinical isolates from those of the B. pertussis vaccine strains is a result of vaccine-driven evolution. Sequencing of the prn,(More)
Although previous studies using human cytokines in rabbits and rats have provided evidence ofthe participation oftumor necrosis factor a (TNF-(x) and interleukin lß (IL1ß) in the meningeal inflammatory cascade, the results obtained by several groups ofinvestigators have been discordant or, at times, contradictory. In the present study, homologous cytokines(More)
Immunization against pertussis was introduced in China in the 1960s. Since the 1970s, no culture-confirmed pertussis cases have been reported in the country. We report six infants with culture-confirmed pertussis, who were initially diagnosed as having other respiratory diseases at Beijing Children's Hospital, Beijing.