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Before childhood vaccination was introduced in the 1940s, pertussis was a major cause of infant death worldwide. Widespread vaccination of children succeeded in reducing illness and death. In the 1990s, a resurgence of pertussis was observed in a number of countries with highly vaccinated populations, and pertussis has become the most prevalent(More)
Bordetella pertussis causes pertussis, a respiratory disease that is most severe for infants. Vaccination was introduced in the 1950s, and in recent years, a resurgence of disease was observed worldwide, with significant mortality in infants. Possible causes for this include the switch from whole-cell vaccines (WCVs) to less effective acellular vaccines(More)
BACKGROUND A study was undertaken to investigate the differential diagnostic role of chest radiographic findings, total white blood cell count (WBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and serum C reactive protein (CRP) in children with community acquired pneumonia of varying aetiology. METHODS The study population consisted of 254 consecutive children(More)
BACKGROUND Bordetella pertussis is a gram-negative bacterium that infects the human respiratory tract and causes pertussis or whooping cough. The disease has resurged in many countries including Finland where the whole-cell pertussis vaccine has been used for more than 50 years. Antigenic divergence has been observed between vaccine strains and clinical(More)
Fifty four patients aged from 1 to 6 years who had had recurrent attacks of wheezy bronchitis were prospectively followed up for three months to find out if there was an association between different viral respiratory infections and episodes of wheezing. Of the 115 episodes of upper or lower respiratory tract symptoms, virus or Mycoplasma pneumoniae(More)
Divergence has been found between Bordetella pertussis vaccine strains and circulating strains. Polymorphism in pertactin (Prn) is essentially limited to region 1, which is made up of repeats. Today, the 3 most prevalent Prn variants are Prn1-3. Vaccine strains produce Prn1, whereas Prn2 is the predominant type found in circulating strains. We investigated(More)
BACKGROUND Human nasopharynx is often colonized by potentially pathogenic bacteria. Gene polymorphisms in mannose-binding lectin (MBL), toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 have been reported. The present study aimed to investigate possible association between nasopharyngeal bacterial colonization and gene polymorphisms of MBL, TLR2 and TLR4 in healthy(More)
Pertussis infection is increasingly recognized in older children and adults, indicating the need of booster immunizations in these age groups. We investigated the induction of pertussis-specific immunity in schoolchildren and adults after booster immunization and natural infection. The expression of mRNA of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), interleukin-2(More)
We used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis and genotyping to compare clinical isolates of Bordetella pertussis recovered since the early 1990s in Finland and France, 2 countries with similar histories of long-term mass vaccination with whole-cell pertussis vaccines. Isolates from both countries were similar genetically but varied temporally.
  • Q He, G Schmidt-Schläpfer, +4 authors J Mertsola
  • 1996
Since April 1993 in Finland and March 1994 in Switzerland, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been used routinely nationwide for the diagnosis of pertussis. Nasopharyngeal specimens from 3794 patients suspected of having pertussis and 1125 controls were tested. Finnish and Swiss assays found 23% and 36% of clinical specimens positive, respectively. PCR(More)