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OBJECTIVE Recent studies have described encouraging outcomes after cervical total disc replacement (cTDR), but there are also critical debates regarding the long-term effects of heterotopic ossification (HO) and the prevalence of adjacent-level degeneration. The aim in this paper was to provide 4-year clinical and radiographic outcome results on the activ C(More)
Paralysis of the lower limbs or both the upper and lower limbs, even partial, is a frightening symptom that will quickly bring the patient to emergency call service. The symptom is a sign of functional disturbance of the spinal cord, possibly resulting from a quickly developed process narrowing the spinal canal. A correct and non-delayed diagnosis and(More)
BACKGROUND Most of the physician's attention during spinal surgery, when using wires and screws, is toward the avoidance of injuries of critical structures (nerves and vessels). When such wires are broken during surgery, the most important point is to take them out safely or, if it is impossible, to leaf them in secure place and follow the patient closely.(More)
Recent studies describe significant rates of heterotopic ossification (HO) after cervical total disc replacement (CTDR). Little is known about the reasons, and one aspect that requires further in vivo investigation is the biomechanical alteration after CTDR and the role of the implant-related centre of rotation (CORi) in particular. The role of the sagittal(More)
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