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BACKGROUND Childhood community-acquired pneumonia is a common illness, but there have been relatively few comprehensive studies of the viral and bacterial etiology in developed countries. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized children by several laboratory methods. METHODS In a(More)
Before childhood vaccination was introduced in the 1940s, pertussis was a major cause of infant death worldwide. Widespread vaccination of children succeeded in reducing illness and death. In the 1990s, a resurgence of pertussis was observed in a number of countries with highly vaccinated populations, and pertussis has become the most prevalent(More)
BACKGROUND A study was undertaken to investigate the differential diagnostic role of chest radiographic findings, total white blood cell count (WBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and serum C reactive protein (CRP) in children with community acquired pneumonia of varying aetiology. METHODS The study population consisted of 254 consecutive children(More)
Bordetella pertussis causes pertussis, a respiratory disease that is most severe for infants. Vaccination was introduced in the 1950s, and in recent years, a resurgence of disease was observed worldwide, with significant mortality in infants. Possible causes for this include the switch from whole-cell vaccines (WCVs) to less effective acellular vaccines(More)
BACKGROUND Booster vaccination against tetanus and diphtheria at 10-year intervals is commonly recommended. Reduced antigen content diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (dTpa) vaccines developed for booster vaccination of preschool children, adolescents, and adults are licensed for once-in-a-lifetime use in most countries. Objective. To(More)
The clinical characteristics of acute otitis media in relation to coexisting respiratory virus infection were studied in a 1-year prospective study of 363 children with acute otitis media. Respiratory viruses were detected using virus isolation and virus antigen detection in nasopharyngeal specimens of 42% of the patients at the time of diagnosis.(More)
We carried out a nationwide retrospective study on bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia diagnosed from 1985 to 1994 in Finland. The records of 85 children were reviewed for symptoms, signs, laboratory data, and response to antibiotic therapy. The chest radiographs were reevaluated. Bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia was characterized by high fever (> or =39.0(More)
Blood-based pneumolysin PCR was compared to blood culture and detection of pneumolysin immune complexes, as well as to detection of antibodies to pneumolysin and to C polysaccharide, in the diagnosis of pneumococcal infection in 75 febrile children. Invasive pneumococcal infection was suspected on clinical grounds in 67 of the febrile children, and viral(More)
We studied prospectively 154 febrile children to determine the diagnostic value of the quantitative serum C reactive protein concentrations (CRP). Children with acute otitis media, acute tonsillitis, or treated with antibiotics during the two previous weeks and infants less than 2 months of age were excluded. Ninety seven children were from private(More)