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Although the effects of commensal bacteria on intestinal immune development seem to be profound, it remains speculative whether the gut microbiota influences extraintestinal biological functions. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a devastating autoimmune disease leading to progressive deterioration of neurological function. Although the cause of MS is unknown,(More)
In the present review we address oral tolerance as an important biological phenomenon and discuss how it is affected by aging. Other factors such as frequency of feeding and previous digestion of the antigen also seem to influence the establishment of oral tolerance. We also analyze immunoglobulin isotypes of specific antibodies formed by tolerant and(More)
To determine the role that competition plays in a molecular mimic's capacity to induce autoimmunity, we studied the ability of naïve encephalitogenic T cells to expand in response to agonist altered peptide ligands (APLs), some capable of stimulating both self-directed and exclusively APL-specific T cells. Our results show that although the APLs capable of(More)
Despite several reports on the immunological relationship between inflammatory bowel diseases and immunoregulatory mechanisms in the gut, systematic studies addressing the impact of inflammatory processes in the gastric mucosa on events, such as oral tolerance, are still limited. Herein, we report the establishment of a novel murine model of gastritis(More)
The majority of contacts with foreign antigenic materials occur on the gut mucosa, and are represented by food proteins and the autochthonous microbiota. In the present study, we replaced intact dietary proteins by equivalent amounts of amino acids from weaning on and investigated its effects on the development of the immune system of mice. Adult animals(More)
BACKGROUND Zika virus (ZIKV) is transmitted by Aedes mosquitos and can result in severe congenital and adult neurologic abnormalities. ZIKV has rapidly spread northward through Central America and the Caribbean and autochthonous cases have been identified in the continental United States. High rates of ZIKA RNA positivity were detected in blood donors(More)
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Immunization of B10.PL mice with the Ac1-9 peptide, the immunodominant determinant of myelin basic protein (MBP), produced a single episode of EAE followed by recovery and resistance to reinduction of disease. Using the CDR3 length spectratyping technique, we(More)
The available T cell repertoire directed against self is appreciable owing to the escape of many clones from negative selection, largely because many determinants on self proteins are cryptic and not presented adequately. In addition, the degeneracy of T cell receptor specificity permits each lymphocyte a broad recognitive potential. Within the available(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Elemental diets (EDs) have been used successfully in treatment of some intestinal inflammatory diseases; however, the mechanism that mediates their effects is still unclear. In this study we evaluated the immunological effect of enteral administration of an ED in mice. METHODS C57BL/6 mice were fed an ED (El-Diet) from weaning up to(More)
B6D2F1 mice, which are very susceptible to tolerance induction by a single gavage with 20 mg of ovalbumin (Ova) at age 8 weeks, become less susceptible at age 25 weeks and totally refractory at age 70 weeks. However, 70-week-old mice may be rendered tolerant by repeated ingestion of Ova. Mice orally exposed to Ova at age 8 weeks remain tolerant at age 70(More)