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Although the effects of commensal bacteria on intestinal immune development seem to be profound, it remains speculative whether the gut microbiota influences extraintestinal biological functions. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a devastating autoimmune disease leading to progressive deterioration of neurological function. Although the cause of MS is unknown,(More)
To determine the role that competition plays in a molecular mimic's capacity to induce autoimmunity, we studied the ability of naïve encephalitogenic T cells to expand in response to agonist altered peptide ligands (APLs), some capable of stimulating both self-directed and exclusively APL-specific T cells. Our results show that although the APLs capable of(More)
Despite several reports on the immunological relationship between inflammatory bowel diseases and immunoregulatory mechanisms in the gut, systematic studies addressing the impact of inflammatory processes in the gastric mucosa on events, such as oral tolerance, are still limited. Herein, we report the establishment of a novel murine model of gastritis(More)
The majority of contacts with foreign antigenic materials occur on the gut mucosa, and are represented by food proteins and the autochthonous microbiota. In the present study, we replaced intact dietary proteins by equivalent amounts of amino acids from weaning on and investigated its effects on the development of the immune system of mice. Adult animals(More)
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Immunization of B10.PL mice with the Ac1-9 peptide, the immunodominant determinant of myelin basic protein (MBP), produced a single episode of EAE followed by recovery and resistance to reinduction of disease. Using the CDR3 length spectratyping technique, we(More)
Current immunological opinion disdains the necessity to define global interconnections between lymphocytes and regards natural autoantibodies and autoreactive T cells as intrinsically pathogenic. Immunological theories address the recognition of foreignness by independent clones of lymphocytes, not the relations among lymphocytes or between lymphocytes and(More)
B6D2F1 mice, which are very susceptible to tolerance induction by a single gavage with 20 mg of ovalbumin (Ova) at age 8 weeks, become less susceptible at age 25 weeks and totally refractory at age 70 weeks. However, 70-week-old mice may be rendered tolerant by repeated ingestion of Ova. Mice orally exposed to Ova at age 8 weeks remain tolerant at age 70(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Elemental diets (EDs) have been used successfully in treatment of some intestinal inflammatory diseases; however, the mechanism that mediates their effects is still unclear. In this study we evaluated the immunological effect of enteral administration of an ED in mice. METHODS C57BL/6 mice were fed an ED (El-Diet) from weaning up to(More)
Intranasal (i.n.) administration of soluble proteins induces a state of specific unresponsiveness to subsequent immunization, known as nasal tolerance. It is thought that newborns are less susceptible to nasal tolerance induction. Recently, we have shown that feeding adult animals with a protein-free diet (Aa) resulted in their arrest at an immature(More)
The immature immune system requires constant stimulation by foreign antigens during the early stages of life to develop properly and to create efficient immune responses against later infections. We have previously shown that intake of antigenic dietary protein is critical for inducing maturation of the immune system as well as for the development of T(More)