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The human amygdala plays a pivotal role in the processing of socially significant information. Anatomical studies show that the human amygdala is not a single homogeneous structure but is composed of segregable subregions. These have recently been functionally delineated by using a combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and(More)
An emerging theme in the neuroscience of emotion is the question of how acute stress shapes, and distorts, social-emotional behavior. The prevailing neurocircuitry models of social-emotional behavior emphasize the central role of the amygdala. Acute stress leads to increased central levels of norepinephrine (NE) and cortisol (CORT), and evidence suggests(More)
Multiple lines of evidence converge on the human amygdala as a core moderator of facial emotion perception. The major subregions of the human amygdala have been anatomically delineated, but the individual contribution of these subregions to facial emotion perception is unclear. Here we combined functional MRI (fMRI) with cytoarchitectonically defined(More)
BACKGROUND The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is critical for learning-related synaptic plasticity in amygdala and hippocampus. As a consequence, there is considerable interest in drugs targeting this receptor to help enhance amygdala- and hippocampus-dependent learning. A promising candidate in this respect is the NMDAR glycine-binding site partial(More)
Neuropsychological studies provide evidence for an ageing-related decline of memory for contextual information related to remembered items. Using event-related fMRI we investigated the neural correlates of ageing-related changes during encoding and retrieval of spatial contextual memory. Eighteen young and 17 older subjects were included in the analysis(More)
The cerebral cholinergic system is centrally involved in memory formation. Studies in rodents suggest that cholinergic stimulation may facilitate encoding of new information but may interfere with retrieval. We investigated the effect of cholinergic stimulation on encoding and retrieval of episodic memory in humans. We also tested whether the putative(More)
Recent theories of developmental dyslexia explain reading deficits in terms of deficient phonological awareness, attention, visual and auditory processing, or automaticity. Since dyslexia has a neurobiological basis, the question arises how the reader's proficiency in these cognitive variables affects the brain regions involved in visual word recognition.(More)
RATIONALE Adaptation to stressful situations changes with increasing age. This is also reflected in age-related differences in effects of acute stress on, e.g., episodic memory. Less is known about age-related differences of the cognitive effects of individual stress responses to challenging situations. OBJECTIVE To investigate the influence of the(More)
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often fail to attach context to their memories and are specifically impaired in processing social aspects of contextual information. The aim of the present study was to investigate the modulatory influence of social vs. non-social context on neural mechanisms during encoding in ASD. Using event-related fMRI,(More)
We investigated the neural networks involved in spatial judgements on visual and imagined stimuli in the left and right hemifields. Twenty healthy male right-handers were scanned using fMRI. In an adaptation of the Mental Clock Test, subjects judged whether the angle between visually presented or to be imagined clock hands at a given time (e.g. "12:20") was(More)