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Although more consensus is now emerging on the magnitude and frequency of cascading trophic effects in aquatic communities, the debate over their terrestrial counterparts continues. We used meta-analysis to analyze field experiments on trophic cascades in terrestrial arthropod-dominated food webs to evaluate the overall magnitude of trophic cascades and(More)
The race for reaching mates by the time they are receptive, or sexual selection by scramble competition, has received little attention. We argue that smaller males are favored in species in which the male must climb to reach females located in high habitat patches. This new explanation we term the "gravity hypothesis" of sexual size dimorphism (SSD). We(More)
 Spiders and ants are potential competitors and mutual predators. Indirect evidence from previous research has suggested that ant foraging may significantly lower the abundance of arboreal spiders in young Douglas-fir plantations in western Oregon. This study tested the effect of foraging by ants, dominated by Camponotus spp., on spider assemblages in(More)
In many regions of the world, variable retention has replaced clear-cutlogging as the principal method of regeneration harvest. Partial retention of the overstory is thought to ensure greater continuity of the species and ecological processes that characterize older forests. Level (amount) and spatial pattern of overstory retention are two basic elements of(More)
The effectiveness of generalist predators in biological control may be diminished if increased availability of alternative prey causes individual predators to decrease their consumption of crop pests. Farming practices that enhance densities of microbidetritivores in the detrital food web can lead to increased densities of generalist predators that feed on(More)
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