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The discriminatory capacity of the mammalian olfactory system is such that thousands of volatile chemicals are perceived as having distinct odors. Here we used a combination of calcium imaging and single-cell RT-PCR to identify odorant receptors (ORs) for odorants with related structures but varied odors. We found that one OR recognizes multiple odorants(More)
1. Odor responses to two homologous series of n-fatty acids (nFA) and n-aliphatic alcohols (nAA) with a straight chain of three to nine carbons were examined by measuring odor-induced [Ca2+]i increase in mouse olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) isolated by the tissue-printing method. 2. One-third of the ORNs responsive to nFA and/or nAA were alternately(More)
It has long been believed that vertebrate olfactory signal transduction is mediated by independent multiple pathways (using cAMP and InsP3 as second messengers). However, the dual presence of parallel pathways in the olfactory receptor cell is still controversial, mainly because of the lack of information regarding the single-cell response induced by(More)
The olfactory system is remarkable in its capacity to discriminate a wide range of odorants through a series of transduction events initiated in olfactory receptor neurons. Each olfactory neuron is expected to express only a single odorant receptor gene that belongs to the G protein coupled receptor family. The ligand-receptor interaction, however, has not(More)
In order to comprehend the strategy of odor encoding by odorant receptors, we isolated 2740 mouse receptor neurons from four olfactory epithelial zones and classified them in terms of their sensitivities and tuning specificities to a chiral pair of odorants, S(+)-carvone (caraway-like odor) and R(-)-carvone (spearmint-like odor). Our approach revealed that(More)
A new method is described for isolating olfactory receptor neurons suitable for simultaneous recording of odorant responses in several cells. This method, called "tissue printing" by Cassab and Varner, was used to isolate cells for measurement of odorant-induced increases in cytosolic-free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) using the Ca2+ indicator dye fura-2.(More)
Since the discovery of the superfamily of approximately 1000 odorant receptor genes in rodents, the structural simplicity as well as the complexity of the olfactory system have been revealed. The simple aspects include the one neuron-one receptor rule and the exclusive convergence of projections from receptor neurons expressing the same receptors to one or(More)
Enantiomeric pairs of mirror-image molecular structures are difficult to resolve by instrumental analyses. The human olfactory system, however, discriminates (-)-wine lactone from its (+)-form rapidly within seconds. To gain insight into receptor coding of enantiomers, we compared behavioural detection and discrimination thresholds of wild-type mice with(More)
Olfactory transduction involves second messenger-related enzymes and cAMP-gated, K+ and Ca2+ channels, which are known to be regulated by Ca2+. We report here that cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in olfactory receptor neuron was increased by odorants or forskolin and Ca2+ influx contributed to the adaptation. The increases in [Ca2+]i were below(More)
The discrimination of thousands of odorants is mediated by several hundred olfactory receptors (ORs). It is generally accepted that the main strategy in encoding odor quality is a combinatorial receptor code scheme, in which odorants are discriminated by different sets of ORs. In the present study, we classified 12 test odorants by their receptor codes and(More)