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Sulfated polysaccharides and their lower molecular weight oligosaccharide derivatives from marine macroalgae have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities. The present paper will review the recent progress in research on the structural chemistry and the bioactivities of these marine algal biomaterials. In particular, it will provide an(More)
BACKGROUND Gastrointestinal microbial communities are diverse and are composed of both beneficial and pathogenic groups. Prebiotics, such as digestion-resistant fibers, influence the composition of gut microbiota, and can contribute to the improvement of host health. The red seaweed Chondrus crispus is rich in dietary fiber and oligosaccharides, however its(More)
Chitosan is one of the most abundant marine-based biopolymers. Low molecular weight and oligomeric chitosans are water-soluble hydrolysates of chitosan. They have been shown to have a wide range of biological activities and industrial applications. In particular, low molecular weight and oligomeric chitosans have been reported to have the health benefits(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the abnormal aggregation of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) into extracellular fibrillar deposits known as amyloid plaque. Inhibition of Aβ aggregation is therefore viewed as a potential method to halt or slow the progression of AD. It is reported that silibinin (silybin), a flavonoid derived from the herb milk thistle(More)
We have previously shown that lipophilic components (LPC) of the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum (ANE) improved freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the mechanism(s) of this induced freezing stress tolerance is largely unknown. Here, we investigated LPC induced changes in the transcriptome and metabolome of A. thaliana undergoing freezing(More)
The present study was carried out to determine the effect of berberine on glucose homeostasis and several biomarkers associated with insulin sensitivity in male Wistar rats with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Rats with fasting blood glucose 16.7 mmol/L after 2 weeks of STZ injection were divided into two groups. One(More)
Liuwei Dihuang (LWDH), a classic Chinese medicinal formula, has been used to improve or restore declined functions related to aging and geriatric diseases, such as impaired mobility, vision, hearing, cognition and memory. Here, we report on the effect and possible mechanisms of LWDH mediated protection of β-amyloid (Aβ) induced paralysis in Caenorhabditis(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common form of neurodegenerative disease. Mounting evidence suggests that metal ions play a key role in the aggregation of amyloid β peptide (Aβ), which acts as a factor or cofactor in the etiopathogenesis of AD. Therefore, inhibition of Aβ aggregation emerges as a potential approach for the treatment of AD. We have found that(More)
We screened seaweed species from Atlantic Canada for antidiabetic activity by testing extracts for alpha-glucosidase inhibitory effect and glucose uptake stimulatory activity. An aqueous ethanolic extract of Ascophyllum nodosum was found to be active in both assays, inhibiting rat intestinal alpha-glucosidase (IC50 = 77 microg/mL) and stimulating basal(More)
The present study was conducted to develop new inhibitors of pancreatic lipase and alpha-glucosidase from Chinese dietary herbs. Sixty-three dietary herbs from 39 taxonomic families were selected and extracted with aqueous ethanol or water. The extracts were then tested with in vitro enzyme assays for their ability to inhibit pancreatic lipase and(More)