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The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a large regulatory and exchange interface between the brain and peripheral circulation. We propose that changes of the BBB contribute to many pathophysiological processes in the brain of subjects with chronic sleep restriction (CSR). To achieve CSR that mimics a common pattern of human sleep loss, we quantified a new(More)
Chronic sleep fragmentation (SF), common in patients with sleep apnea, correlates with the development of obesity. We hypothesized that SF differentially affects neurobehavior in lean wild-type (WT) and obese pan-leptin receptor knockout (POKO) mice fed the same normal diet. First, we established an SF paradigm by interrupting sleep every 2 min during the(More)
Autophagy is essential for normal cellular survival and activity. Circadian rhythms of autophagy have been studied in several peripheral organs but not yet reported in the brain. Here, we measured the circadian rhythm of autophagy-related proteins in mouse hippocampus and tested the effect of sleep fragmentation (SF). Expressions of the autophagy-related(More)
Sleep disturbance in patients with multiple sclerosis is prevalent and has multifactorial causes. In mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of multiple sclerosis, we determined the dynamic changes of sleep architecture and the interactions between sleep changes and EAE symptoms. The changes of sleep patterns were mainly reflected(More)
We have recently shown that mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) have increased sleep fragmentation (SF) and reduced sleep efficiency, and that the extent of SF correlates with the severity of disease. It is not yet clear whether and how sleep promotes recovery from autoimmune attacks. We hypothesized that SF promotes leukocyte(More)
Excessive obesity correlates with hypersomnolence and impaired cognitive function, presumably induced by metabolic factors and cytokines. Production of the adipokine leptin correlates with the amount of adiposity, and leptin has been shown to promote sleep. To determine whether leptin plays a major role in the hypersomnolence of obesity, we measured sleep(More)
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